Monday, September 30, 2019

Tobacco/Cotton Slavery FRQ

Compare and contrast the experience of slaves on tobacco plantations in the early seventeenth-century Chesapeake region with that of slaves on nineteenth-century cotton plantations in the Deep South. What forces transformed the institution of slavery the early seventeenth century to the nineteenth century? When approaching slavery from a historical standpoint, it is a tendency to generalize the experience of slaves. However, slavery differs per region and time period.The differing climates of the Chesapeake region and Deep South determined the crops that would be grown and consequently the severity of slave labor. Likewise, over time slavery evolved from a class based system (poor indentured servants working alongside blacks) to a racially based system, creating an identity within the slave community. However, not only the slave experience differed, the institution itself transformed.The transition from class-based slavery to racial slavery, accompanied by new technologies that made the industry more profitable, changed how the institution was run. Thus, despite a general continuity in the institution of slavery, such as it being agrarian-based and involving black subordinates, many forces changed the institution like the installment of slave codes in 1670s, making it a legal and racial practice, and the development of the cotton gin and other technological advances in the 1790s.Whilst seventeenth century slavery was characterized by smaller tobacco plantations, racially-mixed servitude, and somewhat less-demanding labor, nineteenth century slavery was characterized by large-scale cotton plantations, solely black slavery, harsh and dangerous working conditions, and syncretic slave societies within plantations. This essay will approach identifying factors of change through the general categories of beginning, middle, and end of American slavery. It will also directly compare and contrast the institutions of early Chesapeake and later Deep South slavery.Slavery i s not new and unique to United States history, and many factors caused it to change and evolve in America. The first major transformation took place in roughly the 1690s when slavery was defined legally and racially. Slavery began in the Chesapeake region as indentured servitude, granting migrants passage to the New World in exchange for a labor contract. The first Africans were brought to the Jamestown colony in 1619, joining the ranks of indentured servants and working side-by-side with whites. There was no legal definition of slavery at the time.Eventually, with significant free land to begin competitor farms, European indentured servants often finished or abandoned their indentured life to begin anew. This created an ever-growing void for labor, and presented a flaw with indentured-servitude— if they could start their own farm, what would keep them at another? This frightened the planters, who feared rebellion and faced a lack of labor. At the same time, Africans were ste adily being brought into America for servitude. In fact, by the mid-1680s black slaves outnumbered their European counterparts.Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676, was a rebellion staged by white descendants of or former indentured-servants living on the frontier against the government of Virginia over defending land from Indians. The result, however, was the end of indentured servitude. It presented too much of a risk— servitude would have to be continued in another way. This way was achieved when in 1682 Virginia issued a slave code that marked the first distinction that all peoples imported to the country of color were to be slaves. This was important because it introduced race into the realm of servitude.Now slavery was both legally enforced and racial. This was a significant force to the development of the black slavery and white supremacist culture we associate with American History today. Throughout the middle time period, racial slavery was concreted. In the eighteenth cen tury, it became evident that the fertile soil of the southern colonies would be instrumental to growing cash crops. Thus, the tobacco slavery practiced in the Chesapeake region boomed, increasing the demand for slaves. Tobacco was an appealing crop for planters, for it cost pennies to purchase and sold for much more.As a result, the slave trade expanded, and many companies sought to join the lucrative trade. This is shown by the Royal African Company losing its monopoly in 1698. By 1750, blacks comprised nearly half of the population in Virginia. To ensure the preservation of racial slavery, new slave codes deemed that the children of those enslaved would also be enslaved. Thus the concept of slavery for life was established. This furthered the claim of planters that the blacks they owned were in fact property or â€Å"chattels†, making the racial basis of slavery unquestionable.It is clear that America was no longer just a society with slaves— the institution of slave ry was integrated with race, the economy, politics, as well as everyday life. In addition to tobacco plantations, cotton slavery was also expanding in the Deep South. As the soil became exhausted from growing tobacco in the Chesapeake area, many slave-owners found it more profitable to sell their slaves to southern plantations. Thus, though slavery remained in the Chesapeake area, the growing cotton industry moved its epicenter to the Deep South. The major forces that caused this shift will be included in the paragraph about the end of slavery.The soil was beginning to become overused because of the intensity of tobacco growing in the Chesapeake, and many plantation owners decided to sell their slaves to Southern cotton plantation owners. In the nineteenth century, the institution of slavery peaked economically and politically. Cotton slavery was a lucrative industry. This was made possible by Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793, and the British Industrial Revol ution. The British had an increased need for cotton for their growing textile industry. The cotton gin allowed slaves to more efficiently yield cotton.Thus, the supply-demand relationship gave rise to massive plantations, some owning hundreds of slaves. The fortunes in slavery were clear by the huge estates of planters and many acres of slave-tended fields. Although, the Atlantic Slave Trade was outlawed in 1808, the slave population in America was self-sustaining (it would eventually peak at about four million before the Civil War). In addition, illegal Atlantic slave trade continued as well as trading within the country (take for example the Second Middle Passage). Slavery, now legally restricted to southern states, was the core of the southern agrarian economy.Because it was so lucrative, planters took initiatives to ensure productivity from their slaves. Whipping was a common practice. Also, Fugitive Slave Laws gave planters the right to their slaves as property, even if they es caped to the free North. Slave codes were strict, and even an inappropriate greeting could guarantee a slave punishment. In response to rebellions like that of Denmark Vesey in 1822 or the Nat Turner Insurrection of 1831, paranoia was high. Planters used these laws to keep slaves in line, and preserve the institution of slavery.In conclusion, a clear progression is made from a legally undefined practice of servitude to a heavily legislated institution with severe punishments. Likewise, slavery developed from servitude of the lower class to racial enslavement. These developments would not be possible without the initial shift caused by Bacon’s Rebellion and the slave codes, to the eventual invention of the cotton gin that made slavery such a lucrative venture. As a direct result of the evolving institution of slavery, slaves had different experiences at different times and places in American history.To exemplify the effects of the forces that transformed slavery, it is importa nt to examine how they altered the experience of slaves over time. To begin we will shed light on the experience of a seventeenth century Chesapeake tobacco slave. This slave would have likely worked alongside white indentured servants, considering slavery was not yet racial. Since slaves were first brought to the Chesapeake in 1619, African servants of this time may not have known English. The nuclear family of slaves often stayed together at this time, and if not they usually remained within the same region.Although the climate of the Chesapeake area is hot in the summer, the conditions were not as bad as further south. The experience of seventeenth century slaves had many similarities and differences to that of their later, Deep South counterparts. By the nineteenth century, slavery was a booming industry, especially in the Deep South where the growing demand for cotton resulted in many plantations. Similarities to the experience of seventeenth century slaves were the consistent agrarian nature of slavery— it still involved significant manual labor.In addition, the slaves lived roughly the same way, with as much (or as little) food and sleep required to keep them productive. Although it was less apparent in the seventeenth century, the black race was always viewed as subordinate. The force that caused significant differences was the increased scale of nineteenth century slavery. It is truly the difference between a society with slaves and a slave society. The Deep South was dependent on the cotton industry. Slaves of the nineteenth century faced grueling conditions, as described in Frederick Douglass’s autobiography. It can be assumed the mortality rate was higher.The nuclear family of Deep South slaves was often broken apart. The marriage vow of slaves was â€Å"until death or distance do you part. † It was profitable to sell slaves down the river, and many slaves like Sojourner Truth watched all of their family sold away. Compared to the mixed ethnicities of slaves in the seventeenth century, by the nineteenth century American slaves formed an identity as a separate ethnic group. Most spoke English, and syncretic slave languages like Geechee and Gullah were formed. In addition, ‘spirituals’ (slave songs) helped the slaves survive harsh work.Deep South slaves also faced more punishment, to keep them mentally enslaved as well as physically. Overall, despite the same general structure, slavery in nineteenth century Deep South was much harsher than tobacco slavery in the Chesapeake. In addition, the resulting identities formed by slaves defined the culture and effected their lifestyles. In conclusion, many forces culminated to transform slavery from an economic to a social and racial institution. The resulting outcome was a huge and lucrative industry. This changed how slaves lived, transitioning from less-harsh work to grueling labor, as well as forming a cultural identity.

Curleys wife throughout Essay

In 1937, John Steinbeck wrote Of Mice and Men a novella about friendship during the Great Depression. The novella offers a unique and vivid insight into the lives of all social groups during the horrific collapse of the American economy. We’re given a comprehensive insight into the life of woman; a minority group in the American society. During the novella we only meet two women, Curley’s wife is one of them, a very naive young girl. In the novella, Steinbeck uses status to make us the reader feel compassionate towards Curley’s wife and the minority group of women. Curley’s wife has limited status and to some extent freedom on the ranch because she is a woman, a social minority. â€Å"Why can’t I talk to you? I never get to talk to nobody, I get awful lonely† Steinbeck uses Curley’s wife’s loneliness to make us the reader feel compassionate towards her as no one wants to participate in conversation with her. Candy regards her as â€Å"Jailbait† indicating she is a young female seeking to get men into trouble. Jailbait is slang for a minor who is younger than the legal age of consent for sexual activity, with the implication that an older person might find him or her sexually attractive. â€Å" I never get to talk to anyone† on the ranch there is a strong prejudice towards Curley’s wife, the men of the ranch have some very strong opinions however Candy is rather cruel about her throughout the novella and even when she is dead he verbally abuses her; â€Å"You god damn tramp, he said viciously† throughout the novella we have been aware of a bazaar tension between Curley’s wife and Candy, Candy and Curley’s wife are both regarded as a members of social minority groups. This relationship is perhaps very unequal because Candy is scared of the power Curley’s wife has. Her strength arises from her membership of being a female on the ranch, she has neither mental or physical strength but she has the ability to get Candy or any other ranch occupant lynched or sacked, which is possibly one of the reasons why he hates her. â€Å"Then-it’s all off? Candy said sulkily. † during this tragic time of Curley’s wife’s death, all Candy can think about is his and George’s agreement to buy their own ranch. â€Å"I get awful lonely† Steinbeck makes the reader develop a sympathetic feelings about Curley’s wife as no one wants to talk to her, her own husband doesn’t want to be with her and when he does conversation isn’t on his mind. Curley’s wife urges for attention and status on the ranch. Curley’s wife views herself higher than other people on the ranch, â€Å"they left all the weak ones here† Curley’s wife ironically insults herself by mistake during a dispute in Crook’s bedroom. â€Å"All the weak ones† the irony is that Curley’s wife is in essence calling herself weak. She views herself as an occupant of the ranch with high importance but in reality she is as weak if not weaker than anyone else on the ranch. Her lack of status is because she is a woman and acts in rather provocative way, whilst reading Of Mice and Men it is obvious that she carves attention. The use of the word â€Å"weak† is interesting as it means to lack the power to perform physically demanding tasks; having little physical or mental strength. This is ironic as she is an attention-seeking child. Steinbeck uses foreshadowing to make the book feel more like a piece of readable art. The effect of this in the novella is to make the book interact with emotions and thoughts; in some instances it can appear rather predictable but as enjoyable if not more than any other book. The effect on the reader is that they read on to see if their opinions and thoughts which were sparked by the effect of foreshadowing, are true. In chapter two we meet Curley’s wife for the first time, â€Å"both men glanced up, for the rectangle of sunshine in the doorway was cut off. A girl was standing there looking in† as the reader this is our first encounter with Curely’s wife, she is presented as a source of danger, but there is a deeper meaning to this. Steinbeck uses light as hope and it enters the bunkhouse until Curley’s wife stands in the doorway and blocks light from entering the bunkhouse. Immediately Curley’s wife is presented as trouble, this scenario is an example of foreshadowing. Curley’s wife dies because of her innocence, when we first meet her in the novella she appears in a rather innocent but provocative manner. â€Å" Her hair hung in little rolled clusters like sausages. She wore a cotton house dress and red mules, on the insteps oh which were little bouquets of red ostrich feathers. † She appears to dress much older than she really is. Steinbeck allowed us to know this by â€Å"A girl was standing there†¦Ã¢â‚¬  which indicates that she is quite young but dresses as an older lady which portrays to us the reader that she is really innocent and rather lost in a world she doesn’t quite understand. When we first meet her we see her as a rather flamboyant, confident young woman but towards the end of the novella her persona changes. Before Curley’s wife’s tragic death she confides in Lennie and we see her youth and innocence open up to Lennie. â€Å" He says he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural. Soon’s he got back to Hollywood he gonna write to me about it. † Curley’s wife opens up to Lennie about an experience she had with a man who worked in Hollywood, who promised her a career in the movies. Curley’s wife’s innocence and naivety were her own weapons of disaster. It was her innocence that sneakily leads her to her death but Steinbeck warned us about this cataclysmic event from our first introduction to Curley’s wife.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Democracy vs Dictatorship

I choose democracy as a more efficient type of government over dictatorship for these three simple reasons right her equal rights for all people, political freedom, and freedom of choice. I know you as a reader notice how every reason has the word freedom in it. This is because with a dictatorship there is no freedom, which show the ovbious reason why democracy is suprior. Democracy is a system of government in which political authority is held by the people. Democracies typically feature constitutional governments with majority rules. This is to keep they peace among the people â€Å"they equally voted for whoever or whatever†. Freedom of expression in a dictatorship doesn't exist. With a dictator if you disargee with him/she you know that your better off not saying anything, because with a militarylistic type of ruler most likely your either imprsioned or killed. Freedom of expression is important mainly because if you only have one view of something how could it not be one sided, without oppions you'll never come up with a plan that suits everybody that can be effected. Political freedom is way be on important. Not being able to choose who runs the place where you live is like paying rent for someone esle's apartment. You have no say in what goes on wither it be about war, taxes, and even sometimes rules. Can you even picture life without your freedom of choice? This means you dont get to choice where you live, jobs, what you want to be, and etc. â€Å"Shoot† if your dictator doesn't want you to speak english anymore and you don't know any other language then you just dont talk. Can you imagine living like that? So I conclude that freedom of choice, political freedom, and freedom of expression are some major reasons for the supriority of an democracy over an dictatorship. If you don't believe that it's better then go to Cuba and live with Castro and see how you like it. Then write me and tell me how you feel about, because your under his rule now if he doesnt want you to leave then you can even come back and tell how you feel.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Recruitment and Selection Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Recruitment and Selection - Research Paper Example he importance of effective recruitment process by envisioning the recruitments process in the organizational cultures thereby ensuring that an organization has a steady supply of qualified human resources. The recruitment process begins with the analysis of a job opening. This requires the human resource management must analyze the roles and responsibilities of the position thereby developing an effective recruitment process. The analysis should inform such features as the academic qualifications of the applicant, experiences and age among other pertinent issues that affect the productivity of employees in organization. This way, the human resource manager understands the features to look for in an individual during the recruitment process. After carrying out an effective analysis of the job position, the human resource manager begins to source for applicants. This relies on the ability of the manager to increase the awareness of the vacancy within a target population. Managers can advertise the position on mainstream media and carry out effective networking in order to attract the prospective employees. Managers thus carry out interviews among other assessment techniques to determine the appropriate employees from the numerous applicants. Such assessment techniques provide managers with appropriate platforms to interact with tea applicants thereby corroborate the claims that the applicants make in their cover letters and resumes. The process makes it possible for managers to interrogate the applicant and determine their motivations for the job and qualifications to hold such positions (Hill & Jones, 2011). This implies that the managers must have the ability to recognize the specific features in the applicants thereby recruit appropriate individuals. The panel of interviewees investigate interpersonal skills, communication abilities and grooming in order to recruits the individuals who can represent the organization in different capacities. The desire to

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Biology questions with citations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Biology questions with citations - Essay Example ed causing nutritional deficiencies; secondly, cystic fibrosis may cause a form of intestinal blockage known as meconium ileus in babies born with the disease (Genetics Home Reference); thirdly, thick mucous may block the bile ducts in the liver causing swelling, inflammation and eventually, cirrhosis; and lastly, the thick secretions may block the gall bladder. These digestive problems may also cause a variety of nutritional problems including anemia, rickets, bleeding disorders and even diabetes (Cedars-Sinai). The reproductive system is also not spared from the deadly effects of cystic fibrosis. In men, the mucous blocks the vas deferens, or the tubes that carry sperm (Genetics Home Reference), thus causing sterility in about 95% of the men (Cedars-Sinai). An endoscope is an optical instrument with a camera at the end and is inserted into the urethra, mouth, anus or a surgical cut in order to get a closer look at the internal organs such as the throat, esophagus, lungs, bladder, ovaries, or colon (MedlinePlus). Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors that are believed to increase one’s chances of having a heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Besides abdominal fat, four other problems associated with metabolic syndrome include damage to the lining of the coronary artery and other arteries, thus greatly increasing the risk of heart disease of stroke; an increased incidence of blood clot formation causing arterial blockage and eventually causing heart attacks and strokes; changes in the efficiency of the kidney in removing salt, causing high blood pressure; and a reduction in the production of insulin, thus signaling the start of type 2 diabetes (Cleveland Clinic). Besides abdominal fat, two other factors believed to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, according to the WHO, include high insulin levels, which refer to elevated post meal glucose or elevated fasting blood glucose (; and HDL level of less than 40 mg/dl for men or below 50

Reflections on my Drug Administration OSCE Essay

Reflections on my Drug Administration OSCE - Essay Example Drug administration is one of the major roles of nurses. However, as I found out in the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) given to us, it entails much more than simply giving a patient a pill. It is an aggregate of all the principles and skills we learn as nursing students, and the application of theories into practice. In drug administration, we have to remember and practice patient safety, provide holistic and individualized patient care, have a solid foundation on knowledge about drugs and medication safety, and perform administration checks and documentation at all times. Much about the role of nurses in hospital can be learned from something as seemingly simple as a drug administration OSCE. Patient safety practices Patient safety is a crucial part of patient care. At all times, all health professionals should keep the safety of the patient in mind. Patient safety practices for drug administration begin at the first contact, from patient identification, patient ed ucation and information, patient contact, performance of procedures, to leaving the patient comfortable. One of the important principles in patient safety is infection control. Nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections are the most common complications affecting hospitalized patients today, and one of the major sources of infection is cross-infection by health care workers (Burke, 2003). Meaning, most patient obtain infection from the hands of those that are treating and caring for them. Most incidents that lead to infection can be prevented and one of the simplest ways to prevent this is by hand-washing. In the Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings released by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Boyce and Pittet, 2002), it is recommended that hand washing and hand antisepsis be done if hands are visibly dirty or contaminated. It should also be done before having direct contact with patients, before donning sterile gloves, after contact with a patientâ€⠄¢s skin, after contact with body fluids or excretion and wound dressings, and before eating or after using the restroom. In all aspects of contact with the patient, hand hygiene must be done. The guideline further recommends that health care personnel should not wear artificial fingernails, should keep nail tips short, and should remove gloves after caring for a patient. Thus, before drug administration, and even before handling drugs and preparing them, hand washing must always be done. It should also be done after patient contact, and in between interaction with different patients. Verifying patient identity is another important aspect of patient safety, and not being able to do this could lead to adverse results. Omitting verbal verification of patients’ identity prior to administering medications may lead to a potential adverse event 20% of the time in worst case scenarios (Lisby, Nielsen, and Mainz, 2005). Even with the use of medication administration technologies such as bar code verification, effectiveness in preventing errors is largely dependent on how practitioners use the technology to verify patient identity and drug identity (Englebright and Franklin, 2005). Remediable causes of having the wrong patient include absent or misused protocols for patient identification and informed consent, faulty exchange of information among caregivers, and poorly functioning teams (Chassin and Becher, 2002). During my OSCE, I failed to check the identity of the patient with my mentor. I understand that failing to properly verify my patient’s identity could lead to adverse consequences, and will make sure to keep it in mind in future patient interactions. Doing a brief clinical history can also contribute to patient safety. It allows nurses and other medical personnel to be aware of the patient’s condition, comorbidities, present symptoms and level of comfort. Particularly relevant in drug administration is asking the patient about other drugs being taken and for any personal history or family history of

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Customized bags Industry for Entrepreneurship class Essay

Customized bags Industry for Entrepreneurship class - Essay Example When shopping for a gift, consumers look for a selection that will make a lasting impression on the minds. Consumers perceive personalized gifts as value for money. In the face of global warming, depleting natural resources and increasing concern among the nature activists, the environment friendly custom bag industry upholds a good opportunity for willing investors and enthusiastic entrepreneurs to venture into. The objective is to start small and gradually scale growth. The method devised to enter the custom made bags industry is to set a web platform whereby customers will login to the website also choose the size and type of bag they want and then choose their favourite design or upload their personal photographs or set the names to be printed on the bag. However the crux of the plan is to provide only eco-friendly bags made from paper, jute and other natural fibres. Customers will also have the option to choose from a range of fashion bags made from post-consumption and industrial waste. Our website works as a bridge between the manufacturers of eco-friendly bags, designers and potential customers. Once an order is processed the bags will be customized using in-house expertise in printing and sewing and thereby delivered at the door step of the customer. To start off with we would cater to the needs and requirements of both retail and corporate clients. Retail customers would comprise today’s fashionable youths who value fashion accessories but at the same time are committed to keep the environment clean. The customized eco-friendly bags apart from serving their generic functionality also add a personal statement to the user. These custom made fashionable bags speak for themselves and gives the user his or her individuality. These bags can also be used as excellent gift items and this is where the corporate clients come into the picture.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Business Plan for Loan Approval Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Business Plan for Loan Approval - Assignment Example Falcon is likely to achieve 150 % of what its competitors are doing because of favourable location and other completive advantages. An initial market research finds that the firm would be able to achieve the 200% sales in the next 2 years from the date of commencement of business. At present there are three firms doing similar kind of business in the locality. But, all of them import from some other countries and pay high price for the goods imported. So the first and foremost key element of proposed firm's success is that MP3 players can be marketed at high margin where competitor have no market and at low price where they have market. Both strategies will result in high sales and income. Another key area to be focused upon to bring more sales is the introduction of innovative strategies. When the retailers are given special selling offers and discounts and long credit period to trustworthy customers, more sales can be brought in more turnovers and high profit. Similarly, human resources-the sales people- must be inspired and encouraged to market the product and make the product popular among the retailers. Last, but not least, management of finance must be given equal importance as any other resources. To start with the business takes partnership form of business with two partners of equal share. Accordingly, a partnership deed is created and the firm is registered as per the Partnership Act. It must be given in the partnership deed that both partners should take part in the business and have equal share in the profit earned and loss incurred by the firm. Once the firm achieves major share in the market, the firm is indented to be converted into a privately owned company with few more shares to be distributed among the relatives of the partners. After a few years of successful operation, the company will expand its operations to other markets with diversified products of similar nature. Then, the company will convert itself into a public owned company with limited liability to enjoy all the benefits of a Public Limited Company. 2.2 Start-up Plan The start-up plan begins with athree month start-up period (September to December, 2008). During this period the firm will give emphasis primarily on setting up an office premises and developing an efficient and effective marketing plan and resources including sales personnel. The start-up expenses include expenses associated with opening an office, legal expenses, initial marketing expenses and those associated with hiring people.A part of the initial expenses can be met with the legacy amount inherited from one of the partners' uncle. The rest of the expenses is intended to be met out of the loan sanctioned by a bank. The expansion expenses in future are financed from sales revenue. Initially, the firm is leasing a property in our local high street for which an amount of 200,000 pounds has to be given to purchase the leasehold of the property for ten years in addition to a monthly rent of 15,000 pounds. The following office equipments are necessary at

Monday, September 23, 2019

Urban Studies and Planning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Urban Studies and Planning - Essay Example All these careers are exciting and personally fulfilling in the sense that they are well paying, challenging, and they give one an opportunity to grow. The urge of using my skills to establish a community where people can live and start families makes a career as an urban planner to be my first priority. I understand that a college degree in addition to extensive training is a requirement for a successful entry into this field of work. To qualify as an urban planner, one needs to take classes on environmental studies so as to understand the interactions between people and the natural environment as well as the dynamics of the environment. Moreover, a person needs to take classes on economics so as to comprehend how the markets operate, particularly, what makes a successful regional economy and business. Additionally, one needs to take classes in art and design so as to prepare oneself to think creatively about visual appearances. The prospect of getting employed as an urban planner is also high. First, there are many institutions, both public and private that hire urban planners. With a degree in urban planning together with the required experience, I can be hired by local/regional governments, private planning firms, and private property owners to facilitate the planning of commercial and communal developments, as well as transportation systems and public facilities (Bayer, Frank, & Valerius, 2009). Secondly, urba n planning is a growing field of employment. As Bayer, Frank & Valerius (2009) put it, the roles of urban planners remain in high demand, and is expected to grow significantly by 2014. For example, the U.S News and Urban Report rated urban and regional planner among the best careers in 2009 (U.S News, 2009). Additionally, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 15% growth in planning jobs between 2006 and 2016. The salary and benefits of regional and urban planners is very attractive. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that the median yearly pay for urban and regional planners was $63,040 in May 2010 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013). Based on the fact that the planning industry has experienced growth in the past years, the prospect of career development is also looking good. This growth is stimulated by environmental concerns and population growth being experienced. Other than becoming an urban planner, I would prefer to become an architect. Since my childhood, I have alwa ys been fascinated with the science and art of building and construction. The prospect of becoming a renowned architect is exciting and interesting because this career path will enable me to design an entire built environment- from how a building associates with its surrounding environment, to construction or architectural details that entails its interior and designing and making furniture to be used inside it. Looking at this career path from a different perspective, I established that architecture is poetic in the manner that it presents itself. It is complex in the questions and issues it gives rise to. Contrary to popular belief that architecture is static, I have established that architecture is detailed and analytical. These qualities make this career path not only attractive, but also fulfilling. A career in architecture is interesting and exciting due to its longevity nature. As compared to most professions, architects can practice their

Sunday, September 22, 2019

A System Reformers View Essay Example for Free

A System Reformers View Essay In the wake of the global rise of terrorism, the System Reformer feels an urgent need to develop and activate a common anti-terrorism program to protect all regions and nations from the disasters on many accounts. In this regard, the System Reformer agrees to the UN viewpoint that under no circumstance the fundamental rights of the humans should be vitiated. These include, right to life, right to freedom from torture in any form, right to freedom of thought and religion, besides holding the convention that restriction to other rights should also be strictly within the parameters of the international humanitarian law, and has to be temporary in nature and free from any bias of race, color, sex, language, religion or social origin. However, this comprehensive objective is now under severe threat due to the global rise of terrorism, which is no more limited to the boundary of any nation. Moreover, terrorism has already severely affected the process of globalization and the global fraternity. The System Reformer believes that the lack of collective action against terrorism has allowed it to grow, besides believing that there is much room for improvement in the planning and approach of UN regarding the issue of terrorism. Thus this report is presented from the viewpoint of a System Reformer, with appropriate founding voices belonging to old, contemporary and modern era. Works Cited A more secure world: Our shared responsibility, United Nations Report, 2004. Retrieved Nov 21, 2007. www. un. org/secureworld/report2. pdf isi, Angela. Kofi Annan on Collective SEcurity. The Economist DEc. 2004: 14. undy, H. G. Grotius and International Society of To-day. The American Political Science Review. 52. 8(2004):800-808. tson, Richard. Woodrow Wilson and His Interpreters, 1947-1957. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 35. 2 (2005): 207-236. ght, Martin, International Theory: The Three Traditions. London Leicester University Press, 1991.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Sociological Perspectives And The Functionalist Perspectives Sociology Essay

Sociological Perspectives And The Functionalist Perspectives Sociology Essay The first sociological perspective that I will use to try to explain the Bertram family scenario is the functionalist perspective. The functionalist perspective evolved from the work of Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), though it was shaped by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons during the mid-20th century.    Functionalism can be summed up simply: the world is a system of interrelated parts, and each part makes a necessary contribution to the vitality of the system (Bohm, 1997: 82). Functionalism examines society through a functional framework which stresses that everything, no matter how seemingly strange, out of place, or harmful, serves a purpose. A useful analogy to use would be all the different parts of the body and how they function to keep the human body alive. All organs in the human body depend on each other and each is vital, performing an overall function. Social systems work in much the same way as an organic system. Societies have established structures within which are es tablished beliefs and practices. All members of society are expected to conform and behave acceptably. The institutional arrangements, for example, political or religious arrangements, exist in society not by choice of its citizens but because they perform a specific function for the social structure as a whole. People within these social structures know and agree on how to behave, living their lives in the right ways from which society benefits (Jones 2003:39). Functionalism holds that everyone and everything in society, no matter how strange it may seem, serves a purpose.   Crime, for example, is viewed almost universally as a nuisance.   Functionalists, however, point out that crime serves several purposes.   Durkheim concluded that crime and deviance serve three major functions for society: deviance clarifies or reaffirms societal norms, it promotes social unity, and it challenges the status quo.   Deviance can bring into question the status quo, forcing society to reth ink previously held norms.   For example, acts perceived as criminal or deviant were critical in shaping the rights movements for African Americans, women, and homosexuals in the United States.   Without questioning the traditional way of treating disadvantaged groups, the norms of discrimination and prejudice could not be broken. Criticisms of functionalism focus on its acceptance and rationalization of social inequality and societal evils.   Since functionalism holds that all aspects of society are necessary, human rights issues like poverty, hunger, slavery, and genocide must be accounted for.   Critics suggest that functionalism can be used as a rationalization of such issues.   The perspective is also criticized for its lack of testability, which is critical for upholding any social science theory.   Several questions stand against its reliability.   Still, it has its strong points, such as its ability to explain crime and deviance.   Functionalism essentially s erves as the most traditionalist of the sociological schools of thought. As with all the other different parts of society family has a role to play in the functioning of society and each family member has a role to play. Mrs Bertram is no longer able to perform the social roles that society expects of her (for example, mother and wife). In the scenario of the Bertram family, Mrs Bertram could be seen to have taken on the sick role. The functionalist perspective of illness is that it disrupts society; it too is a form of deviance. A functionalist perspective would suggest that social services would need to control the deviance by either putting Mrs Bertram into residential care or by providing services for her at home, in order to bring her back in line with societys expectation of her. Similarly the social worker would also expect Mr Bertrams deviant behaviour to be dealt with. The fact that he is leaving his wife alone for extended periods of time and is generally not caring for her as would be expected of a husband could be viewed as deviant behaviour. The Bertrams are from a generation where gender roles were very specific and Mr Bertram is probably struggling with the role reversal, so would need support with this. Mr Bertrams possible alcoholism could also be viewed as a form of deviance that would need to be brought under control by perhaps providing him with support to overcome it. Feminist theory became established in the 1960s. What defines feminism is the view that womens relative subordination must be questioned and challenged (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005:16). The feministic view is that women are oppressed and their freedom to act and express themselves is limited by the relative power of men, as they tend to possess more economic, cultural and social resources than women. There is a wide range of feminist views due to the failure to agree on ways to explain subordination of women or how women can be liberated or what actually constitutes oppression (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005). As a result there are many varying feminist perspectives drawing on a wide range of disciplines. According to Abbott Wallace and Tyler (2005) early feminists have focussed on issues relating to questions of power, knowledge and subjectivity. Liberal feminism sees gender prejudice as a matter of individual ignorance (Jones 2003:91). Liberal feminists believe inequalities ca n be eradicated by putting in place anti-discrimination laws and by promoting non-sexist attitudes. Marxist feminists believe that womens subordination serves the needs of capitalism (Jones 2003:92). Marxist feminists argue that subordination of women in capitalist societies is best explained by understanding the economic disadvantages that they face. Radical feminism sometimes referred to as gynocentrism affirms that patriarchy is the key to understanding social structures and patriarchal relations are universal and elemental (Jones, 2003:94). The term patriarch is used widely to refer to a society based on universal male supremacy and female subordination (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005:33). This perspective is concerned with womens rights rather than gender equality and it emphasises the difference between men and women. Within radical feminism the family is seen as a key instrument of womens oppression through sexual and maternal obligation. Feminists who adopt this perspective are concerned with the way women perpetuate mens control when they become so oppressed by patriarchal ideologies. Feminist theories of social work have been criticised recently for treating women generically and displaying insufficient sensitivity to the complex ways in which other social divisions such as race, age, disability, etc impact on gender relations. (Dominelli 2002) Mrs Bertram could be seen by feminists to be suffering at the hands of a patriarchal society. She has been lured into dependency by Mr Bertrams charming ways. It could be argued that Mrs Bertram found the prospect of marrying into a higher social class rather appealing. Radical feminists argue that all relationships between men and women are institutionalised relationships of power (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005:35). Mrs Bertram does not appear to be an equal in the marriage and her illness has further exacerbated her powerlessness. Mr Bertram has all control of the finances and probably all major decisions affecting Mrs Bertram, especially as she now lacks capacity, further reinforcing her subordination. It is unclear whether Mrs Bertram has ever worked, if she has not Marxist feminists would argue that this was to the benefit of a capitalist society as she provided, when she was able, free domestic services to sustain her husband. Mrs Bertrams reasons for wanting to stay with her husband may be due to her ideological view of marriage. Feminists argue that married women do not have an identity separate to their husbands (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005) and she may be trying to hold on to what little she has left of her identity as she is slowly losing her faculties due to the Alzheimers. Her ideological view masks the real subordination she faces at the hands of her husband. This is further reinforced by his neglect of her needs and failure to care for his wife as a husband would be expected to. The psychodynamic theory was pioneered by Freud and later developed by a number of writers. Freud argued that there were various levels of conscious and unconscious thought. The id which is the source of basic urges and the drive to survive. The superego is the conscious, public expression that seeks to convey that we are doing what is acceptable to society. The ego is the part of the unconscious that attempts to mediate between the id and superego. Individuals may not be aware of the interactions within themselves and engage in behaviours that are expressions of their deep unconscious, seeking to rationalise them through the ego and superego. The psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning as based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious conflict between the different structures of the personality (Baker, 2003:39). The psychodynamic approach attempts to explain the motivation of behaviour. Th e basic assumptions of the psychodynamic theory are that behaviour is motivated by conscious and unconscious mental processes, and that behaviour reflects current motivation and past experience (Glassman and Hadad, 2009). The approach claims that early negative experiences may become buried in the unconscious and manifest themselves in how an individual behaves in relationships with people later in life. Bion (1962) cited in Maclean and Harrison (2009) believes that the quality of childhood relationships in early life shapes the development of personality and character. According to Freud various defence mechanisms are developed by people to cope with difficult emotional situations. These defences include denial, repression, projection and displacement. Freud was of the opinion that people could overcome their problems by making conscious those thoughts and motivations hidden in the unconscious. He used several methods to gain access to the unconscious, such as free association whic h involved allowing the individual to say whatever came into their mind and if the client became blocked talking about something this signified something deeper was occurring in their unconscious. Freud also use dream analysis as he believed that unconscious thoughts were revealed in dreams and could be interpreted. Transference was another method used as clients projected and displaced their own thoughts and feelings onto their therapist. The psychodynamic approach is criticised for its subjectivity and gender, cultural and historical bias (Barker, 2003). The psychodynamic approach could be used to better understand Mr Bertram. Problems that are identifiable in the case scenario are his poor management of money, his neglect of his wife and his suspected alcoholism. His behaviour could possibly be a result of what is happening in his unconscious mind due to a negative experience in early childhood. The amount of time he spends at the golf club away from his wife could be explained as him using denial as a defence mechanism against painful emotions. He may have experienced painful losses in the past and this may have affected his unconscious mind. It is possibly too painful for him to accept his wifes illness and his coping strategy is to refuse to accept what is happening. His suspected alcoholism may be due to him regressing to an earlier stage of development where he felt safe or comfortable, possibly the oral stage when developing children focus on oral pleasures such as feeding. It is possible that the stress of his wifes illness h as triggered the regression and he may not even be aware of how his unconscious is leading him to use alcohol to cope. His use of alcoholism could also be explained as fixated behaviour, if Mr Bertram experienced trauma when he was at the oral stage (stage where according to Freud child gains satisfaction from sucking, eating, etc) in his development it is possible that he then became confined to this particular stage. His conscious choice to drink alcohol has its origins in the repressed depths of the unconscious mind (Ingleby 2006:8). His use of alcohol as a way of managing a difficult situation is inappropriate behaviour and generating its own set of problems as he is neglecting his wife and the home is in an awful state. A social worker using this approach would have to proceed with caution as behaviours may not be the result of unconscious assumptions. Behaviourism rose in prominence in the early 20th century through the ideas of thinkers such as Pavlov and Watson. The behaviourist approach lays emphasis on the role of environmental stimuli in determining the way that we act. A key idea in behaviourism is that all individuals enter the world as a clean slate (Ingleby, 2006:5). Social factors are then responsible for shaping the individual. The basic assumption is that humans learn behaviour by learned relationships between stimulus (excites the sense organs) and a response (reaction to stimulus). The main behaviourist theories of learning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning occurs when we make an association between a neutral stimulus that reliably produces a response, so that the neutral stimulus comes to produce the same response (Baker, 2003:43). It is most well known through Pavlovs experiment where dogs were given food at the same time as a bell was rung. The result was that the dogs wou ld salivate when the bell was rung even if no food was presented. Pairing of an unconditioned stimulus led to an unconditioned response and when the unconditioned response was paired with another stimulus, the stimulus eventually produced a response on its own. Operant conditioning has had a considerable influence on psychology and is used regularly in social care (Maclean and Harrison, 2009). Operant conditioning recognises that the environment effects behaviour. Much behaviour occurs randomly and whether we repeat it or not depends on the response we get. For example, if a person says they want to kill themselves, they may not know how or fully understand what they are saying but whether or not they say it again may depend on the response of those around them. The behaviourist approach is criticised for be oversimplified as it ignores mental processes and limited as not everything can be accounted for by simple learning (Barker, 2003). It is possible that Mr Bertram has learned behaviours over the years due to the responses he has received. As he is from a white upper class background he has led a fairly privileged life. Even though his financial status is now in question he has learned over the years that his exceedingly charming manners are able to get him what he wants. He was able to use his charm to sweep Mrs Bertram off her feet and so far has managed to use this same charm offensive to keep the landlord and social services at bay. If we apply the principle of operant conditioning to the situation we can see that Mr Bertrams behaviour has been shaped by the way that those he has come into contact with have responded by conceding to his charming ways. The consequence has been that he continually uses this behaviour to mask the problems he and his wife are experiencing. I was born and raised in Zimbabwe just before independence and I am the second child of a nurse and a self-made business man. Education was very important in my family and although it went unsaid there was always an expectation that we would be successful in life. The culture I was raised in had a very patriarchal framework and this extended to state policies and procedures. For example, in order for me to obtain a passport or national identity card I had to either go to government offices with my father or a male relative with the same surname or produce my fathers identification documents. My mothers presence or her documents would not have been acceptable. If I view this from a feminist perspective, women in my culture were placed in a position of subordination because of economic dependency and because generally they were constructed as socially inferior (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005: 28). Despite the fact that my mother worked all financial decisions were made by my father. M arxist feminist would argue that subordination of women in Zimbabwe served and continues to serve to enhance capitalist interests. My mother tended to my fathers every need so that he could go out and be productive at work. Education was a very important part of my life. Emphasis was always placed on the fact that I needed a good education in order to succeed in life. I remember getting very good reports at school while my sister got the opposite. My parents would sit her down every time her report card came home. If I apply the behaviourist principle of operant conditioning to my situation I learned that if I came home with a good report card my parents response would be a positive one. I therefore endeavoured to always have a good report so that that positive response from my parents would be repeated. My background will provide me with insight on how women can feel oppressed even in environments that they are supposed to feel safe, so that I can effectively challenge oppressive practices. My background also helps me understand how responses I may have as a social worker will shape future behaviours of service users to other social workers or professionals. It is clearly important to have an understanding of sociological and psychological perspectives in social work as both make a significant contribution to understanding different service user needs.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Discussing the importance of communication in nursing

Discussing the importance of communication in nursing To listen to another person is the most caring act of all. Listening and attending are by far the most important aspects of being a nurse (Burnard 1992). One of the basic elements of nursing is good communication skills with patients. Being unable to communicate well with a patient immediately can destroy the nurse/patient relationship and therefore the patient may not trust the nurse (Anon 2007). The purpose of this essay is to discuss the importance of communication in nursing. Without communication nurses would be unable to provide the correct care, but improving communication is a life-long developmental process (Ewles and Simnett 2005). I will draw upon my personal experience from the clinical area to show how well the theory relates to the practical side of nursing and use the process recording sheet for structure and guidance (Appendix i). In accordance with The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Conduct, nurses must respect peoples right to confidentiality. Therefore for the purpose of this essay I have used a pseudonym and the patient discussed is referred to as Carol Brown and any personal or identifiable information has also been altered so as to protect her privacy and dignity which are also enshrined in the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Conduct. I asked Carol for explicit permission to use our interpersonal relationship in my communications essay and advised her of my obligations on my professional conduct to which I am bound by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008), regarding professional, moral and safe practice. Carol was in agreement to be involved with my assignment and on no account was her physical care at risk during this interaction. I was nearing the end of my placement in a general medical ward within a large general hospital. The ward treat a variety of medical complaints including diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, stroke and alcohol liver disease. A young 36 year old female was admitted to the ward, now known as Carol Brown with an increased weight loss due to non-intentional self-neglect probably caused by her chronic condition although could be deep rooted to family relationships (Day and Leahy-Warren 2008). Carol was awaiting heart surgery, replacement hips and replacement knees at major surgical hospital in another area of the country. Her health status was poor as she suffered from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and had a congenital heart defect. Carol was in need of pain management, and although it was currently being managed with a variety of powerful painkillers, these proved to have little relief. Carol spent the majority of time in bed due to her severe pain, and due to this she cried out a lo t. I thought that communication would be difficult with Carol as she was mostly in pain but I also believed that she would like someone to talk to but that person would need to be a good listener. It is important to remember that nurses have the duty to provide care holistically, for the whole person, not just for their physical needs but their mental and social needs too (Kenworthy et al. 2002). Carol liked to be washed in her bed every morning as movement for her was difficult. The bay that she was in was busy with little privacy and only the curtains for seclusion. I went into assist her to wash one morning and because of her psoriasis she needed special creams applied routinely. She spoke quietly about her illness and explained her difficulties to me. Her head was bowed and she had difficulty in making eye contact. She talked slowly and quietly and sometimes mumbled, she also appeared quite melancholy at times. Talking about her family, her illness and when she was younger made her sad and she was crying. I think this was cathartic for Carol and it could be that feelings beneath the surface may need uncovered in more detail to enable her to release her emotions (Bulman and Schutz 2008). I felt that Carols ability to communicate was linked to how she felt about herself. She was inclined to judge herself too severely and underestimated her abilities. This self-blame reflect ed her ability to communicate (Ewles and Simnett 2005). She was in so much pain, her head was bowed and she could not make eye contact. I was leaning in close to her bedside, touch was not good, her body was too sore. I tried to show empathy towards Carol by giving her time to talk, being patient and listening to her. This was an example of Egans (2007) Soler theory which is a non-verbal listening method that is used commonly in communication. Was she crying because she was in so much pain or was it because she was recalling happy memories from before she fell ill? I was keen in developing the therapeutic relationship. According to Arnold and Undermann-Boggs (2003), empathy is the ability to be sensitive to and communicate understanding of the patients feelings. Being compassionate is similar to being empathetic in a way that it is important to recognise that Carols feelings belong to her and not to me. I was interested in Carols illness, to learn more about her condition and hear about her difficulties. Getting to know your patient helps to promote dignified care (Nicholson et al. 2010). She was very independent and wanted to do as much as she could by herself. Help was minimal and she only asked when she was struggling to re-position her feet. I used active listening to allow to her speak without interrupting. Active listening is not only the act of hearing but of being able to interpretate any underlying meaning (Arnold and Undermann-Boggs (2003). I paid close attention to her facial expressions and body language and Argyle (1988 p.57) suggests facial expressions provide a running commentary on emotional states. I asked Carol open questions about her illness as I thought this would allow me to encourage her to talk and she responded to this well. Open ended questions are used to elicit the clients thoughts and perspectives without influencing the direction of an acceptable respon se (Arnold and Undermann-Boggs 2003 p.241). It also allowed Carol to describe her experiences, feelings and understandings and I felt this approach was appropriate. I wanted to try and distract her from her pain as I found it difficult to see her being so unhappy, so I commented on some magazines that were lying on her table and asked her about her taste in music. This was a good subject, her eyes lit up and she smiled. We finally made eye contact. Carol and myself were exchanging verbal and non-verbal communication in order to understand each others feelings. According to Kozier (2008) non-verbal communication can include the use of silence, facial expressions, touch and body posture. Carol was keen to talk about her taste in music and became very chatty, in fact, she became somewhat excited. I put some cds on for her to listen to and as I did this she asked me questions about my taste in music. There was now no barriers to our communication as we both shared the same taste in music. When the music was playing Carol was in a different world, she was more relaxed. Research has shown that the pain and tension of illnesses such as arthritis can be eased with music therapy (Murcott 2006). I took her hand and held it gently, her eyes were closed, she was smiling and she appeared more content. By holding her hand, I felt as though I was comforting and reassuring her. Touch is a form of non-verbal communication and can be a powerful way of communicating (le May 2004). This was an indication that I really did care and that I wanted to help her. Using touch skilfully and thoughtfully can convey that you are able to be with your patient (Benner 2001 p.57). Communication can be therapeutic and the music playing was not a barrier in communications, it was in fact beneficial. Music has the power to tap into our emotions and alleviate tension (Mallon 2000). Therefore, it is argued that effective communication is more than delivering high quality patient-centred care; but it also allows patients to feel involved in their care, which can make a significant difference to their outlook on their treatment (Collins 2009). Reflecting back I realised that I was really quite worried about the communication difficulties I was facing during my interaction. Carol was a very obstinate person who knew exactly what she needed and yet she desperately wanted to be as independent as possible. I wanted her to allow me in and for her to be comfortable with me. I am glad I eventually gained her trust and we both became more relaxed. Trust is an important element in the nurse/patient relationship and can in fact affect the patient care in practice (Bell and Duffy 2009). In fact, the impact that this interaction had on our relationship was that as the days went on we became very good friends and she was very special to me. Sully and Dallas (2005), suggests that to have an empathetic understanding of our patients needs we must recognise their need for comfort and we respond to this compassionately. It was important to be non-judgemental, I accepted Carol for who she was no matter what her circumstances were and my main concern was to care for her in a professional and beneficial way and in a manner that she preferred. The Royal College of Nursing (2003) suggests that the personal qualities of a nurse should include compassion, respect and a non-judgemental approach. Putting the interaction into perspective, I originally found Carol very demanding, always calling out and constantly pressing the call buzzer. Some staff were very reluctant to go to her because her personal care was very time consuming. It was time consuming but it was because she was in a lot of pain. Surely this was a barrier to communication as some staff did not take the time to listen to what Carol required and as health promoters, we need to develop skills of effective listening so that we can help people to talk and express their needs and feelings (Ewles and Simnett 2005). Rogers (2004) used the term unconditional positive regard, this meaning that people can be too judgemental and it is important to disregard how much of a b urden someone thinks a patient with complex needs might be and treat everyone equally. From recording and analysing my interactions I have learned to accept people for who they are as each of us have had different experiences throughout life and these experiences make us who we are. It was also important to acknowledge Carols point of view, her emotions and thoughts without judgement as being aware of these helped to appreciate her perspective and needs (Silverman et al. 2005). I have also learned to be a good listener and an active listener. Ewles and Simnett (2005) suggest that this means taking note of the non-verbal communication as well as the spoken words. It is important to maintain eye contact, observe the body language, listen properly and pick up on non-verbal signs as well as verbal signs. The environment is important too, along with being sensitive, honest and compassionate (Anon 2007). Collins (2007) argues that judgemental attitudes can stand in the way of getting to know your patient and that labels attached to individuals such as demented can act as a l anguage barrier. Effective nursing requires us to be assertive, responsible and to help our patients achieve the best possible health status (Balzer Riley 2008). In conclusion, the key points that have been discussed in this essay are that of the importance of communicating in nursing and how nurses can improve their communication skills and maintain their effectiveness. We must provide holistic care for our patients and the goal is to listen to the whole person and provide them with empathetic understanding. Another key point is that we must be non judgemental no matter what the patients circumstances are. Overall communication during this interaction was positive, therapeutic and helped to build a relationship. This essay has shown how personal experience from the clinical area relates the theory to the practical side of nursing and how it is imperative that communication is clear, understandable, appropriate and effective. 2059 words References ANON., 2007. Communication skills (essence of care benchmark). Nursing Times. (Accessed on 21.07.10). ARNOLD, E., and UNDERMANN-BOGGS, K., 2003. Interpersonal relationships: professional communication skills for nurses. 4th ed. Missouri: Saunders. BELL, E., and DUFFY, A., 2009. A concept analysis of nurse-patient trust. British Journal of Nursing. 18(1), pp. 46-51. BENNER, P., 2001. From novice to expert: excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. BLAZER-RILEY, J., 2008. Communication in nursing. 6th ed. Missouri: Elsevier. BULMAN, C., and SCHUTZ, S., 2008. Reflective practice in nursing. 4th ed. Sussex: Blackwell. BURNARD, P., 1992. Counselling: a guide to practice in nursing. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. COLLINS, S., 2009. Good communication helps to build a therapeutic relationship. Nursing Times. 105(24), pp.11-12. DAY, M.R., LEAHY-WARREN, P., (2008). Self-neglect 1: recognising features and risk factors. Nursing Times. 104(24), pp.26-27. EGAN, G., 2007. The skilled helper: a problem management and opportunity development approach to helping. 8th ed. California:Thomson. EWLES, L., and SIMNETT, I., 2005. Promoting health: a practical guide. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall. KENWORTHY, N., et al., 2002. Common foundation studies in nursing. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. KOZIER, B., et al., 2008. Fundamentals of nursing: concepts, process and practice. Essex: Pearson Education. LE MAY, A., 2004. Building rapport through non-verbal communication. Nursing and Residental Care. 6(10), pp. 488-491. MALLON, M., 2000. Healing Sounds. The Scotsman. 12th May, p.9. MURCOTT, T., 2006. Music Therapy. The Times. 18th February, p. 17. NICHOLSON, C. et al., 2010. Everybody matters 1: how getting to know your patients helps to promote dignified care. Nursing Times. 106(20), pp. 12-14. NURSING AND MIDWIFERY COUNCIL, 2008. The NMC code of professional conduct: standards for conduct, performance and ethics. London: NMC. ROGERS, C., 2004. On becoming a person: a therapists view of psychotherapy. London: Constable. ROYAL COLLEGE OF NURSING, 2003. Defining nursing. RCN. (Accessed on 29.07.10). SILVERMAN, J., et al., 2005. Skills for communicating with patients. 2nd ed. Oxon: Radcliffe publishing. SULLY, P., and DALLAS, J., 2005. Essential communication skills for nursing. Edinburgh: Elsevier.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Middlemarch by George Eliot and Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy Essay

Middlemarch by George Eliot and Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy The Victorian era brought about many changes throughout Great Britain. Man was searching for new avenues of enlightenment. The quest for knowledge and understanding became an acceptable practice throughout much of the scientific community. It was becoming accepted, and in many ways expected, for people to search for knowledge. Philosophy, the search for truth, was becoming a more intricate part of educating ones self; no longer were people holding on to old-fashioned ideas. Central to the story lines of Middlemarch, written by George Eliot, and Jude the Obscure, by Thomas Hardy, is the theme of ambition and the tempering of expectations both to social difficulties, and on a broader scale, human frailty. Dorthea Brooke and Sue Brideshead display elements of the â€Å"new woman† and both are driven to accomplish what each desires. Both are intelligent and educated women. The contrast in the two comes from the different motives each has to separate themselves from the norm. Sue is self-centered in her â€Å"independence,† while Dorthea is an ardent spokeswoman for social reform and justice. Both women follow different paths, neither ending up at a position they once knew they would attain. Dorthea is depicted early in the novel as having an intimidating presence; however, at a dinner with the supposedly learned and intelligent Mr. Casaubon, she feels quite uneasy. He is an older man with an unattractive appearance which goes completely unnoti ced to the â€Å"lovestruck† Dorthea. Her sister Celia comments, â€Å"How very ugly Mr. Casaubon is!† Dorthea responds by comparing him to a portrait of Locke and says he is a â€Å"distinguished looking gentleman.† Later, after dinner, Casaubon and Dorthea discuss religious matters and she looks at him in awe because of his supposed superior intellect. â€Å"Here was a man who could understand the higher inward life†¦a man who’s learning almost amounted to proof of whatever he believed!†(p. 24). As intelligent as Dorthea is, she failed to see Casaubon for the man he really is, and will be, in marriage. Casaubon proposes to her and she accepts. She sees this as an opportunity to further advance her own intellectual abilities and help a great man complete his studies. Later she would realize her husband has very limited intellectual abilities and is not a suitable companion for... ... the money, even though she should be entitled to it. She was always faithful do Casaubon, despite not loving him. They marry and have two children with a â€Å"house full of love.† Will does become a member of Parliament, but he never makes a fortune. Dorthea lives a happy life because she followed her independence. She made choices she regretted, but overcame them with her strong personality. She never accomplished all the goals she had set out to, but she did find love with Will. The money she gave up could have helped her establish the knowledge and training she wanted to achieve, but her love of Will was more important to her than her academic endeavors. She was indeed an independent woman with a strong sense of moral values. Sue was the exact opposite of her. Sue never wished to help anyone but herself. She did whatever made her happy or secure. Her independent nature came from her own self-absorbed sense of life. She never really loved Jude, or anyone else. She just enjoyed the idea of someone loving her. She was dependent on this in order for her to feel a sense of belonging. Both women followed patterns of being a â€Å"new woman,† but neither one followed the pattern completely.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Effects of Civil War Essay -- essays research papers

When a war occurs, it takes years for the society or societies involved to return to a more normal, calm state. In the case of the American Civil War, many aspects of the country were disrupted after the war ended in 1865. Relations were strained, land had been destroyed, families torn apart, and much more. The economy struggled, and many Southerners did not want to accept a loss. The death count for the American Civil War was also an amazing number, and made a large dent into families, businesses, and towns across the nation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When examining the physical damage to the land after the end of the war, it was obvious that much of the country had been brutally trampled and scarred by the battles and rampages of the war. As troops had moved across areas, they had burnt many fields and homes in proof of their defiance against their enemies. Also, many cities, towns, and businesses had been set fire as the troops had captured and traveled through them. Many of these fires took lives, and often made making a fresh start and rebuilding seem like an impossible venture. The land that had been destroyed by these fires also was very tattered and would take many years to rehabilitate.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The countless buildings, homes, businesses and structures that had been torn down and broken apart, were definitely very discouraging matters for the citizens after the war ended. Many families had lost their homes to traveling troops during battles...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Theories of varied motivation in psychology

It is said that entire psychology is about the study of motivation itself. In fact the science of psychology evolved to explain, answer and reason the ‘why’ of human behavior. Motivation holds the answer to this ‘why’ because when we attempt to reason for a particular behavior or attitude then basically we are finding the motivations responsible for that particular behavior (Gorman, 2003, 1). People perform a variety of actions through multiple roles according to their dominant motivation that guides their behavior. In psychological studies the implicit motivations determining human behavior are not only considered from point of view of biological drives and neurological impetus but they are also explained by relational aspect of human behavior where motivation is a dynamic aspect of the behavior that helps people to interact with the world (Nuttin, 1984,1).   Many theorist attempt to offer generalized explanation for a majority of human actions purely in terms of natural instinct or sudden impulse. Even the people engaged in performing those actions may also agree to this viewpoint. However, the theory of instinct and impulse presents an incomplete rational because there are critical external factors and attractions that also contribute towards the particular motivation. Therefore human motivation is a dynamic product of combination of intrinsic human traits as well as their environmental setting. Another important factor that plays an important role in explaining motivational factors in behavior is human emotion (Gorman, 2003, 89). Human beings experience a number of emotional states that continue to fluctuate and they act as causative factors in a large number of actions undertaken by them. As a matter of fact, motivation is a product of a very complex process of internal and external interaction of human beings with themselves and their surrounding and it acts as stimulant and provide energy for their behaviors and consequent actions. Psychoanalytic Explanation of motives Motives interests psychologist because they provide insight into the character and approach of individuals, providing psychologists with test materials on which they can further form and expand their theories. The reasons of specific actions, such as why did a person steal, why did he commit a murder, why did he participate in a cause where he was not interested, or why did he contributed a majority of his wealth to charitable causes can perhaps be better understood if the motives behind them are sought. The implicit notion is that there are some actions which deviant to a person’s characteristics and those that are difficult be explained by any standard rule based system (Peters, 1958, 28). Psychologists, in their attempts to explore the motives, that is the set of specific reasons for deviant as well as normal actions have given considerable attention to the unconscious self of human beings of which they are themselves unaware. The unconscious self is composed of repressed feelings of deprivations, unfulfilled desires and infant sexuality and it subtly acts on every human being to set the framework of many of their actions (Peters, 1958, 55). This theory of unconscious mental process, as proposed by Freud, and the psychoanalytic explanations it offered, did not profess to explain the entire gamut of human behaviors, but it certainly provided a more panoramic view to cause and reasons of many human actions that were hitherto conventionally explained on mere visible evidences. According to the new wisdom, actions performed by people have a long and complicated background and though they may appear final or conclusive in their immediate bearing, they are part of a long chain of interconnected events. Therefore even the simple question that why did John walk across the road take vast proportion in psychology. As explained by Peters (4), the simple answer that John crosses the road to buy some tobacco is insufficient, even though John himself in unaware of any other motive. To a psychologist, in crossing the road to buy tobacco, John is conforming to many social and cultural stereotypes such as he is not running or crawling across the road to get the tobacco (ibid, 5). If John had run, then his goal of obtaining tobacco would had fallen incommensurate with his action that should had warranted more urgent justification. However as John walks across the road, it indicates that procuring tobacco is a kind of activity that should be accomplished in a normal behavioral conduct to make it appear as an appropriate social function. A psychologist might further argue that John has secret liking for tobacconist’s girl, and he goes to the particular shop to see that girl, though he may himself be not aware of this. Another explanation might be offered that John had an unconscious disliking of work from which he wanted to escape and the act of going to tobacconist was a way for him to stay away from the unpleasant work. Its important to see here that in neither of these explanations John himself is aware of any other reason other than buying tobacco, but each of the region, both of them or several others can be true to the case. The Biological Approach to Motives The biological or physiological aspects of motives are perhaps the earliest explanations that were offered to reason for motives behind human actions and behaviors. This approach views human as ‘drive-oriented’ animals who are more the product of biological factors of cellular and neurochemical reactions, acting through our genetic traits alone and spurred by release of hormones to various actions. This physiological analysis puts instinct as the primary reason behind every human action and its framework basic human instincts such as desire to eat, drink, sleep and have sex combine to form the further ramifications of human behavior (Gorman, 2003,14). In this model, drives for specific actions stimulate people and they respond accordingly in their behavior. It states that behavior of people is the result of homeostasis, that is, the tendency to maintain a stable internal environment of body. Body responds to any deprivation that threatens the stability of internal equilibrium and unleashes corresponding behavior to correct it (Weiner, 1980, 11). Thus homeostasis drive theory accounts for situations where a person may be compelled to steal food if he is hungry, or run if he is threatened, as maintaining the internal equilibrium is principle motive of any living organism. Behavioral approach to motives As Nuttin (1984, 16) states, understanding of motivational process is critically dependent on understanding of dynamic aspects of human behavior. In the field of psychology behavior refers to cognitive activities that an individual performs in the context of a behavioral world (ibid, 17). These activities can not be understood if they are treated separately, and therefore an integrated model of behavior interpretation is required that views that takes a complete and related view of all the processes in the living organism. According to the behavioral model, the various biochemical functions and basic drives are encompassed by behavior that gives these individual traits their full meaning and purpose (ibid, 18). As such hunger, thirst, sleep, sex drive, fear, ecstasy, loyalty etc are not isolated factors in determining motives. Instead they are integrated as part of the behavioral structure that creates a sense of organic continuity. Thus seeing changes to watching and hearing changes to listening in the behavioral model. Various theories and models in the field of social behavior have come with suggestion that human behavior reflects a person’s intent to act (Orbell, 2004, 145). According to each of these models it is possible to predict behavior from intentions and behavioral control displayed by a person. Behavioral characteristics can successfully account for specific types of motivations seen with various actions. For example, harvesting, hunting and fishing are quite different behaviors, yet they are done with the same objective of procuring food. Similarly, despite their different behavioral traits, people are essentially same every where, in the sense that they seek love, trust, social respect, and financial stability, thus acting through almost identical motivational drives. Within the behavioral system, a form of unity and cohesion is attempted out of multiple elements interacting together in a motivational setup (Nuttin, 1984, 84). Humanistic Approach to Motives The humanistic approach in describing different motives for human actions is a relatively new field. Its fundamental principles, as stated by Weiner(1980, 409) are 1. Humanistic psychology studies people in their real life circumstances, where humans are subjects of the study, rather than object. People are described in their own consciousness and perceptions and the reasons and motives of their actions are placed along with their individuality, in a holistic and complete framework. 2. Humanistic psychologists also believe that human choice, will, their desire to move ahead in life, to grow and realize their potentials contribute to their actions, behavior and approach to life. 3. The dominant characteristics of any individual is to achieve personal potential, and develop their capacities and talents to highest level. Thus the central motivation in an individual’s life is to grow, move ahead and develop his or her own self. Conclusion Human actions would continue to be defined, analyzed and interpreted from a number of points of view, according to various theories, models and approaches to understand its complexity and give complete meaning to its attributes, in order to evolve a wholesome picture of factors that motivates people towards a varied degree of actions. Motivations can be best understood from the dynamics of behavior and the integrated setup that provides basis for planning, thinking, action and achievements of goals to people. Further, people are motivated to different actions based on their own perception of needs and requirements as well acting through their subconscious self, which explains for the difference in their perceived reason of their certain steps from the actual reasons justifying it. Reference Gorman, P, 2003, Motivation and Emotion, Routledge, New York. Nuttin, J, 1984, Motivation, Planning, and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior Dynamics, (trnsltr) Jean E. Dumas ,, Raymond P. Lorion , Leuven University Press; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Leuven, Belgium. Orbell, S, 2004, Contemporary Perspectives on the Psychology of Attitudes: The Cardiff Symposium. (edit ) Geoffrey Haddock,   Gregory R. Maio, Psychology Press. Hove, England. Peters RS, 1985,The Concept of Motivation. Routledge & Kegan Paul :London Weiner, H, 1980, Human Motivation, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ   

Monday, September 16, 2019

Obedience Essay

One of the most prominent studies of obedience in the study of psychology was performed by Stanley Milgram. The intent of this study was to research how far individuals would go in obeying a command while it involved hurting someone. Milgram’s curiosity to see how normal individuals could be influenced by enormity seems to be an influence for this study. My initial reaction to Milgram’s study video was pure disgust. In my opinion, he treated his participants like animals. Due to his own fascination, he did not care about the well being of his participants, but rather to fulfill his own thirst for knowledge. During the video, a man pleads to let him out and the responded says, â€Å"Go on, I will not be responsible for it†. A few seconds later he yells and continues to ask to let him out. The presence of the administrator affect obedience because of his authoritative role, and continues to reassure the subjects that the volts were not harming them. It is anticipat ed that individuals are to follow directions accustomed by an administrator. For instance, authority affects obedience in our everyday lives. When we attend school, there are different layers of authority. You have your teachers, security services, a vice principal and a head principal. It is important to show respect, listen and engage what is being ask of you because there is a higher level of authority. In my opinion, when individuals do things against their personal ethics when an authority asks can have many different reasons. This study confirms that obedience can take precedence over moral code (Myers, 2012). Obedience to authority is implemented in our brains at a very young age. As children it is integrated to follow authority, whether it be a parent, teacher, boss etc. Normative influences can also be a result. References Myers, D. G. (2012). Exploring social psychology (6th ed.). Boston, MA:McGraw-Hill. retrieved from:

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Adolescent Sexuality and Risk Factors Essay

Adolescence is that period between childhood and adulthood, when the adolescent is discovering his or her own identity and dealing with the transition. It is also a time of becoming more aware of sexuality and establishing patterns for future relationships. Those identifying as nonheterosexual i.e. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT), face even more challenges than their heterosexual counterparts. One challenge is their health. Russell and Consolacion (2003) conducted a study on the topic of romance and emotional health of adolescents. The authors concluded that youth who had same-sex attractions and who were not in relationships showed increased measures of anxiety and depression. They also had more suicidal ideation than heterosexual youth. The dangers of smoking are well researched and documented. Easton, Jackson, Mowery, Comeau and Sell (2008) in their study concluded that same-sex and bisexual youth are at greater risk for tobacco use. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) notes that increased stress level, mental health and other physical health problems are common among LGBT youth (CDC, 2011). Ray (2006) in a study of homelessness among LGBT youth notes that they face a number of problems in additional to being homeless. They are at increased risk of mental health issues, high risk sexual behaviour to support themselves, substance abuse and victimisation. Education is important and LGBT adolescents face challenges in this area. Many of them are likely to be runaways so their education suffers as they are absent from school for long periods. Himmelstein & Brà ¼ckner (2011) noted that these young people were also at risk for being more severely punished at school and in the justice system. They are also victims of violence and discrimination at school, often being bullied, teased and harassed (â€Å"LGBT bullying† n.d.). Counsellors working with adolescents who are LBGT must be sensitive to the feelings of uncertainty, rejection and fear that these young people are experiencing.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Paradigm in Nursing Essay

Nursing as any science is a tentative, testable and falsifiable discipline. It undergoes: empirical observation, hypothesis development, experiment, results/finding and finally conclusion. Basing on the finding, one can accept or reject the hypothesis. Theory has been seen as the model of the ethics of conducting a set up and while forth is in position to predict future occurrences or observations of the same kind and capable of being tested through experiment or otherwise verified through observation. Each theory has set principles on how to verify it known as paradigm. Discussion Paradigms are a set of postulations; practices shared by a particular body, say a community of researchers and stems from a single theme. The paradigm seeks to regulate inquiry into the discipline that is concerned. It can therefore be viewed as the norm which the scientists or researchers can use as platform which they can agree of disagree depending on their findings. The various paradigms have one thing in common. They are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conducting research (Demarest, et al 1993). This in return contributes to paradigm shift. Paradigm is seen to supersede mere interpretation of the tabulated finding or basic understanding in general. Superstition of paradigm consequently gives varied contribution in the area of disciplinary knowledge construction. Depending on the researchers sentiments/he may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is inequivalent to another. Alternatively, these differences may be ignored or combined so as to conduct the research needed. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. This is arising due to the fact that each paradigm has a shift (Demarest, et al 1993). For instance, Child development defects will be viewed from various aspects and hence differing paradigm. A biologist my evaluate child development in perspective that children will naturally gain knowledge as they physically grow and become older, provided that they are healthy. Others may view that the child gains knowledge depending on its surrounding or what it interact with; while others view that a child is due for school after it starts interacting with environment and people as well. A nurse scholar can thus decide to combine the three theories or ignore all to achieve what s/he is researching on. Conclusion In conclusion the nurse researcher should weigh the pros and cons of a particular paradigm in his/her approach to assess of existing knowledge and thereby fill the informational gaps. This is because dominance of a particular paradigm is influenced by a number of factors. These may include: the source of finance for the research, government influence, biases from the journal and editors of the print, conferences and symposiums held, coverage by the media, educators who are responsible of spreading the paradigm to their students as well as the professional bodies which may favor a particular paradigm. However, paradigm should be natural and operational in all times.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Ground investigation in shallow offshore sites Article

Ground investigation in shallow offshore sites - Article Example t in situ where the installations are to be located, comprehensive data acquisition is required in the entire area affected and far down beneath the sea floor. Such processes that encompass offshore site investigations are varied in nature. They range from analyzing marine geological information, scrutiny of available geophysical data which is used to plan the actual investigations. Such processes that lead to the success of the above mentioned range consist of drilling, sampling as well as in situ testing which in essence includes penetrating into the seabed with the help of high technology drilling vessels. These processes encompass what is generally referred to as Geotechnical investigation. From The period 1985 to 1982 Lunne and Powell (1992) gave a review of developments in offshore investigations. They explored the various technological inventions that marked this period and discus the contributions of such developments to offshore studies with new in situ tests being tried out in the offshore environments, including several examples of field model testing. Lunne and Powell observed the general trend over the last 6-8 years which was the gradual increase in deep water developments. Due to the difficulty of taking undisturbed samples in deep water there has been a tendency to rely more on situ testing. Special geotechnical problems associated with geo-hazard evaluations have also inspired developments within the field of in situ testing. In addition the general competitiveness of the market has been a driver cost efficient solutions. Borings, the most efficient and probably accurate technique of shallow offshore studies come in two main varieties, large-diameter and small-diameter boring. Large-diameter borings Peres involve offshore drilling with large enormous machines that bore extensive areas. They are rarely used due to safety concerns and expense, but are sometimes used to allow a geologist or engineer to visually and manually examine the soil and

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Environmental Issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Environmental Issues - Essay Example Handling temperatures and pressures of subsea oil can easily be monitored through the use of sensors and other instruments even during drilling (p. 135). But Rose argues that even though modern technology, research and monitoring systems have reduced the frequency of ecological catastrophes, still, there are factors that can cause oil-well blowout from high-pressure and high-temperature which can result to emission of buoyant plume of oil, producing water and methane (p. 141). Baird stated that â€Å"hurricanes have become manageable, with oil lines now being capped at or beneath the ocean floor† (p. 135). But aside from oil lines on and beneath the ocean floor, Rose said Hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed 115 platforms, spilling roughly 17,700 barrels of petroleum and 25,110 barrels of mixed crude oil from above-ground storage tanks in Louisiana (p. 141-142). Petroleum leaks, Baird said, can now be restrained by industrial seals (p. 135). Although this is the case, the pro blem does not stop at petroleum leaks. Rose argues that another disturbing impact of offshore oil is the volume and type of wastes, such as produced water, drilling fluids, cuttings, diesel emissions, and chemicals associated with operating mechanical, hydraulic, and electrical equipment (p. 142). Even with modern technology, we cannot guarantee that offshore drilling can withstand the force of God, which include hurricanes and other natural disasters, and human errors. Modern technology cannot reverse the destructive environmental impacts of offshore drilling gone wrong. It is better for us to find alternative sources which are safer for the environment and for the people’s health. Protecting the environment does not mean we are less concerned about protecting the country from economic problems, but other alternative sources can lower oil imports and thus save our country from further spending. Issue 8 - The release of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contributes to global w arming and is thus a danger to the well-being of human beings. To ease global warming, either people refrain from using fossil fuel as an energy source or capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere (Easton, 2011, p. 148). In carbon capture technology, the debate is not about the existence of the said technology but on their sustainability, safety and viability in being stored underground indefinitely (p. 149). In a nutshell, there are three issues surrounding the debate between David Hawkins and Charles Schmidt – the availability of technology, safety concerns and the political will to end the use of coal (Easton, 2011, p. 149-150). Hawkins maintains that the technology to capture carbon emissions are already existing and can already be utilized while Schmidt contends that the available technology is not yet technically and financially viable to be utilized in a major scale (p. 149). Anent to this issue is the question on safety, while Hawkins maintain that the t echnology on safety concerns are already feasible, Schmidt contends that there is still no assurance that carbon dioxide can be stored and can remain in containment underground indef

Retail Loss Prevention Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Retail Loss Prevention - Assignment Example The 11.9% increase in eFencing from 49.2% in 2012 is a clear indication that ORC needs specialized attention. The loss resulting from ORC flows through the entire chain of distribution and the consumer becomes a victim too either by purchasing stolen products or by having to pay more money as a result of increased prices on commodities or services. Moreover, the criminals are becoming more aggressive harming those who happen to interdict them. While the article highlights partnerships and advocacy as well as federal legislations as the best methods of curbing ORC, I perceive increasing visibility on merchandise and employees involvement to be best ways of curbing the disgraceful act. The staff should be in a position to keep an eye on every stock as n uncomplicated and less costly way of preventing occurrence of ORC. Employees should also be fully exposed to the company’s policies regarding theft and stern warnings and possibly dismissal given to those caught participating in the practice (Greggo, Alan & Millie, 127). Noteworthy, Greggo, Alan, and Millie attribute the continual increase in ORC to the lessened interests to work, high unemployment and the need for individuals to uphold cozy lifestyles despite the prevailing economic hardships (p. 132). Securing credit card data has also become extremely and with the increased cyber crime, it will be challenging to handle ORC (Hedgie, N.p). The article by the National Retail Federation informs how important law enforcing agencies are in preventing retail losses. Hedgie Bartol. "Loss Prevention."  Integrated Solutions For Retailers, POS Software, POS Hardware, Retail Software. N.p.,  2014. Web. 24  Apr.  2015.