Thursday, October 31, 2019

International Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 7

International Relations - Essay Example The world community is quite skeptical of this stance taken by the regime as they see the program as a chance for the current regime to make a nuclear weapon. This situation would certainly cause a stir in the region due to the unstable relationship that Iran has with neighboring countries such as Iraq, Saudi Arabia and others (Bruno, Irans Nuclear Program, 2010). Iran’s nuclear program has caused a lot of hue and cry over the few years that it became common knowledge that Tehran was working on the program. Many resent the thought of Tehran having the potential of enriching nuclear material and using it either for energy purposes or for weapons as something unacceptable and dangerous. Even the Arab nations, though in the front portraying a show of support, are in the background somewhat skeptical of the program. In a meeting of the Gulf Cooperation Council in November of 2005 the leaders of several Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, made a statement inviting the world nations to prevent he program taking off. The Secretary General in a statement claimed that the program had no justification for it and it was for the better that the Middle East be a weapons free zone with regards to weapons of mass destruction (KHAITOUS, 2008). There are a number of clear cut reasons why there needs to be concern over Iran’s nuclear program over that of France and Great Britain. Those two nations have their nuclear program off the ground and have managed to secure their facilities, as best as one can in this current global situation. Iran’s nuclear facilities are still in the preliminary stages with respect to the other nuclear programs operating in the world. A major concern are the Muslim extremists in the nation who are a threat to the world security. There are serious doubts as to how safe the nuclear material will be in Iran and whether Muslim extremists can get their hands on

Monday, October 28, 2019

Business Financing and the Capital Structure Essay Example for Free

Business Financing and the Capital Structure Essay The financial marketplace is the area where companies engaged in financial trading are able to get capital to run. The financial market can also be referred to as capital markets. Stock markets are the place where companies come to trade among themselves; they represent individual investors or corporate investors. Trade in stocks has been deemed among the most lucrative areas a person can trade in; the returns are good. Stocks can simply be defined as shares bought for trading purposes and profits gained are ploughed back into the U. S. economy. (Saccomani and Chambers, 2008) Trade in U.S. financial markets offer various benefits; an organization can get loans to fund their activities through floating of bonds. When organizations are able to run efficiently then everybody gets to benefit, the government benefits through increased tax collection and more people get employed. The stock market offer individuals an avenue to put their money in lucrative stock instruments where the funds are managed by financial experts. Individuals do not have to worry about their limited financial expertise because at the stock markets well informed brokers or their employees will help them. Individuals are offered a variety of trading avenues which involves minimal labor and less capital intensive. (Saccomani and Chambers, 2008) The Federal Reserve is a name that is used to define the Central Bank in America. The bank was a creation of U.S. Congress for purpose of offering a safer and easier trading environment in America. The Fed is tasked with the management of the American monetary policy. They also regulate banks as well as monitoring risks at the stock markets. The Fed is comprised of seven members; who constitute the board of governors. Members of the board also constitute the F.O.M.C. (Federal Open Markets Committee); this committee decides on what interest rates to be charged by banks as well as purchase of treasuries. The Fed`s primary role is that of regulation. (Ltaifa et al, 2009) The Fed chairman`s role is that of a supervisor; he is tasked with the role of bringing the board to consensus of various monetary issues. The chairman is a presidential appointee hence he reports to the president from time to time on the country`s financial matters. The chairman also has the responsibility of steering the committee on interest rates. (Ltaifa et al, 2009) Departments or components of the Fed Reserve need to play their respective roles effectively so as to take the country in to financial success. The chairman should always maintain a steady control of all fiscal policies. The board should not enact self-centered policies that may endanger the banking sector or stock markets. The board and the chairman have to make prudent assessments of U.S. financial performance before taking any steps meant at changing any monetary policy. Interest rates affect the economy; particularly the spending power of individuals. The rates charged on bank loans lays a heavy burden on citizens; the net effect is loans become expensive hence doing business becomes harder. Higher interest rates on returns at the stock markets offer a reversed effect to the citizen; this brings about more disposable income because the return on investment is higher. (Batten and Szilagvi, 2011) The world suffers when markets get affected by whatever elements; this happens because the various economies around the world are interconnected hence any financial downfall of one will weaken the other. The Euro zone crisis is one such example where a problem begins in one country but after sometime affects a number of countries within same geographical location; countries that trade together. In the U.S. such a crisis occurred between 2007-2010, individuals found themselves not being able to finance their loans and other credit obligations. Care and keenness is needed when one wishes to traverse this terrain. References Saccomanni, F., Chambers, A. (2008).  Managing international financial instability: National tamers versus global tigers. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Ltaifa, Navil Ben, Kaendera, Stella, Dixit, S. V. S. (2009).  Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Exchange Rates and Policies in Sub-saharan Africa. Intl Monetary Fund. Batten, J., Szilagyi, P. G. (2011).  The impact of the global financial crisis on emerging financial markets. Bingley, U.K: Emerald. Source document

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Issues Of Fresh Water In Singapore Environmental Sciences Essay

The Issues Of Fresh Water In Singapore Environmental Sciences Essay Singapore is an island and urban city state with no rural hinterland and hence, it has been depending on Malaysia for nearly forty percent or more of its water supply. However, Singapore is not short of fresh water as it receives an average of around 2,400 mm of rainfall annually. The only constraint faced by the country is capturing and storing as much of this rainfall as possible, on limited amounts of land areas, so as to achieve self-efficiency in water issues. Recycling efforts in Singapore started in 1966 when the Jurong Industrial Water Treatment Plant was commissioned to supply industrial water to the Jurong Industrial Estate (JIE). This water comes from treated sewerage effluent and is meant for industrial use in the Jurong area as well as by several oil refineries. The Singapore government encourages industry and private enterprises to recycle water. Also, tax rebates have been provided for factories that install water-saving plants. Bottles of NEWater Singapore has also developed NEWater, a three-stage process which brings waste-water to a quality that is better than that produced by the Public Utilities Board (PUB). Treatment begins with Microfiltration to remove suspended solids, colloidal particles, bacteria and viruses. The next process is Reverse Osmosis, which involves applying of pressure for water to flow from the concentrated side to the less concentrated side through a semi-permeable membrane to remove inorganics like heavy metals, such as nitrate, chloride, sulphate etc. The third process, Ultra-violet disinfection, is a safety back-up to remove any bacteria or viruses that cannot be removed by Reserve Osmosis. Desalination is a process of removing excess salt from water (eg. seawater) to enable it for drinking purposes. It has been used to augment water for some time, but it was not adopted as a matter of policy until recent years. This method is considered successful, as this source of supply produce 12% of Singapores daily water needs. Although desalination costs under current improved technology are higher than traditional means of treatment, Singapore has decided to go ahead in the belief that new technologies will reduce the costs further. 3. Impoundments and reservoirs Singapore has several impounding reservoirs inland including Seletar, Peirce and MacRitchie etc. To increase storage capacity, seven reservoirs have been developed by damming the river mouths. It was in that context that a plan to maximise collection of surface resources by extending the present 24.3 square miles of collection grounds to 156 square miles (about 75% of the islands total area) was proposed. However, geological conditions limited the availability of groundwater, hence the plan focused on retrieval of stormwater and water recycling instead. Another reservoir which was built in the recent years was Marina Barrage, which was officially opened on 30th October 2008. Marina Barrage is a dam built across the Marina Channel. Water flows into the reservoir from some of Singapores most well-known waterways, including the Singapore River, Stamford Canal, Rochor Canal, Geylang River and the countrys longest river, Kallang River. Marina Barrage was envisioned by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew in 1987, after the great clean-up of the Singapore and Kallang Rivers. Building the barrage on the soft sea bed amidst changing currents and constantly moving marine traffic was a major challenge. From the air, the pump house of the barrage looks like that number 9, which signifies longevity in Chinese. This major engineering achievement is symbolic of Singapores development as a City of Gardens and Water. How Marina Barrage works? The Barrage acts as a physical barrier to separate the reservoir from the sea. The steel crest gates of the Barrage will act as a tidal barrier to keep the high tides out. Under normal conditions, the crest gates will remain in an upright position to isolate the reservoir from the sea. During heavy rains that collide with low tide, the steel crest will be lowered to release excess storm water into the sea. During heavy rains that collide with high tide, the steel crest gates remain erect, hence storm water cannot flow out to sea naturally. Instead, large drainage pumps will be operated to pump water out to sea. With the Barrage in place, the pockets of low-lying areas in the city will no longer be prone to flooding. 4. Stormwater run-off Harnessing stormwater at minimum cost requires proper land-use planning and pollution control to ensure that stormwater run-off can be efficiently collected and that pollution levels are low. Stormwater harvesting from urban land was consistent with the overall policy of land use in this land-scarce republic, in which land was seen as too valuable for its use to be restricted to a single purpose such as for housing. In the words of the Minister for National Development: If we designate more land for water catchments, there will be less land for housing and other developments. The reverse is also true. Optimising and maximising the use of land and water helped the country to overcome constraints to a certain extent. (Adapted from: The Straits Times,1996) Singapore was the first country in South-East Asia (SEA) to develop viable stormwater run-off schemes. Among the various schemes, the Bedok and Lower Seletar Schemes are the largest. Surface water for these schemes comes mainly from the housing estates and new towns of Ang Mo Kio, Bedok, Tampines and Yishun and the area near Changi International Airport. Water is conveyed to the storage reservoirs of Bedok and Lower Seletar. One important feature of this scheme is the emphasis on close co-ordination between several agencies, such as the Housing Board Development (HDB), the Ministry of the Environment (ENV) and the Planning Department, in order to ensure that water collected from urban surfaces is low in pollutants. In addition, the drainage system designed in such a way that it channels water through concrete channels to suitable collection ponds situated at topographic low points. An automatic monitoring system ensures that only discharges produced by heavy storms resulting in run-o ff above a certain volume are collected. One example of the innovative approach to stormwater collection is making use of the empty space under the interchange of the Seletar and Bukit Timah expressways for a water collection pond. 5. Conservation of water In addition to developing and diversifying water resources, water conservation is also key to ensuring a sustainable water supply. Through our various water conservation initiatives, Singapore has managed to reduce domestic water consumption from 172 litres per capita per day in 1995 to 157 litres in 2007.(Adapted from Conserve, Values and Enjoy by Ministry of Environment and Water Resources, 08 July 2008) It is a difficult task to keep looking for new sources of water, but the situation can be improved if we can control our ever-increasing demand of water. To provide water for all, PUB calls on all Singaporean to play our part in water conservation and to keep our water catchments and waterways clean so that we can enjoy our water resources. One way to discourage excessive use of water is to impose water conservation tax on the amount of water used. This additional tax is added to the price of the water consumed by households and varies according to the amount of water they use. A household that consumes more water will pay higher taxes compared to household that used less water. Additionally, there are varieties of activities organised to teach Singaporeans to view water as a scarce and precious resource, and to use it wisely. Water conservation talks are conducted in schools and leaflets on water conservation are distributed to households. Water-rationing exercises, where the supply of water to some homes is temporarily cut off, are also carried out in housing estates. Effectiveness of the solutions implemented by government So far, Singapore has been able to tackle the problem of a limited supply of fresh water with the introduction of water reclamation, desalination of sea water and impoundments. Technological innovations in modern society have enabled us to have larger catchment areas, to build dams and to obtain fresh water from sea water and used water. Policies aimed at water conservation have also produced certain positive results. Based on the research conducted by the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, the domestic water use per person has generally fallen between 1995 and 2007, from 172 litres per day to 157 litres per day. This means that Singaporeans are more aware of the challenge they are to face nowadays. Introduction of water conservation taxes and activities about water conservation also help to spread awareness about the importance of water conservation. Recommendations regarding the current policies from our committee Government can introduce fine of a certain amount of money for over-usage of water. This means that if the households use unusually large amount of water every months, the government could send down the letters to inform them that they have used too much water compared with the national average, and they should manage their usage well from now on or the authority would have to take action in order to save water. In case if the household owners do not take mind of the warnings, they would be fined. Similarly, households have done well in controlling the water usages should be rewards for their effort put in. For example, tax-relief can be introduced to residents who use water-saving devices at home. Measures like this can encourage the people to install water-saving devices in their houses, hence the overall usage of water would gradually drop to an acceptable level, and the people can be satisfied with rewards given by government for their well-being as the citizens. Examples of water-saving devices: Shower head Water-saving tap Toilet stop Such water-saving devices help reduces water usage at our homes. We uses 9 litres of water whenever we flush the toilet. A toilet stop can be used to cut down the usage of 9 litres. It is added to the toilet flushing mechanism to stop the flushing when the handle is released. Thus if used wisely it allows people to save up to 20% of their total water bill.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Jealousy in Shakespeares Othello Essay -- Othello essays Shakespeare

Jealousy in Shakespeare's Othello  Ã‚        Ã‚   Othello features jealousy as the dominant motive for action and therefore just as reflected in real life we bare witness to jealousy influencing the characters of Iago, Brabantio, Roderigo, and Othello. In this essay I shall be attempting to examine this theme in depth drawing comparison between jealousy and the consequential action.   The dominance of jealousy as the chief causative force of action in the drama is very obvious to most critics. In William Shakespeare: The Tragedies, Paul A. Jorgensen exposes the main motivation in the story: In 'roundest' terms, Othello is a story of raging sexual jealousy prompted apparently by the least credible of motives. Othello has eloped with Desdemona, the white, refined, and pure daughter of a Venetian senator, Brabantio. [. . .] The marriage might have succeeded had it not been for one of the most hateful characters ever created: Iago. This essentially puny man is, he tells his dupe Roderigo, jealous because his general Othello has appointed as lieutenant not the seasoned plain veteran Iago but a learned soldier of the new type, Cassio. In soliloquy (1.3.377), Iago tells us also of the reasons for his jealousy and proposed revenge, all of them sexual: he claims both Cassio and Othello have seduced his wife, Emilia, a warm-hearted, simple wom... ...n Shakespeare?s Othello. Ed. Anthony G. Barthelemy Pub. Macmillan New York, NY 1994. (page 39-55) Jorgensen, Paul A. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985. Neely, Carol. "Women and Men in Othello" Critical Essays on Shakespeare?s Othello. Ed. Anthony G. Barthelemy Pub. Macmillan New York, NY 1994. (page 68-90) Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. No line nos. Snyder, Susan. "Beyond the Comedy: Othello" Modern Critical Interpretations, Othello Ed. Harold Bloom, Pub. Chelsea House New Haven CT 1987. (page 23-37)

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Sociology Ethnicity Question

Using material from item A and elsewhere assess the claim that ethnic differences in educational achievement are primarily the result of school factors. It is not completely internal school factors that can affect different ethnicities level of achievement in education, external factors can have a large part to play in the achievement levels of ethnic minorities in education as well. In education studies have shown that Chinese students as well as Indian students are the highest achieving ethnic groups in education while black and Bangladeshi students are the lowest achieving students.In 2006, 73% of pupils Indian origin gained a 5 A* – C passes at GCSE, compared to 56% of White pupils and an even lower 47% of Black pupils, Item A agrees with this point. Labelling is a large part of the internal factors that affects different ethnic groups’ achievement in education as some teachers label different ethnic students as less able or be less able to understand the teacher be cause they are of different ethnicity when in fact they can understand as well as a white student.Ethnocentric Curriculum is also a large part of the internal factors that can have an affect on the success levels of the ethnic minorities in education as in schools they tend to teach subjects which are appealing to the white students over the black students. In history they tend to miss out teaching about black history in order to teach more appealing topics and in English, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens are usually taught over black writers and this can cause the ethnic students to take less of a care to the subject, ending up in a lower success rate.The internal factor of ‘institutional racism’ is a major factor which can cause the different ethnic groups to be less successful in education. There is evidence of ‘institutional racism’ in schools by the way that the schools take racism less seriously and often fail to deal with issues of racism whic h make the ethnic groups feel disadvantaged and treated differently making them have a mood of fatalism about education this point is also made in item A. Feature Article –  Sociology Test  1As well as internal factors there are external factors that can affect the success levels of ethnic groups in education such as the inadequate language level spoken by low-income black families. Bereiter and Englemann found that there language skills were ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable for education and incapable for expressing ideas. Flaherty argued that the external factor of the ethnic groups being more likely to live in low quality, substandard council housing also plays a large part on the success levels of ethnic groups in education.This means that they will also be less likely to have good study space, money for health nutritious food and means they are less likely to have revision resources needed for success and item A agrees with this point. Racism in the wider society is also a large external factor which can have a large impact on the ethnic groups in the wider society as this racism can de-motivate people from doing well in education and striving to get the good jobs as they believe only the people who are white ethnicity will get the jobs.This racism is evident in Mike Noon’s study, when he sent off applications named ‘Patel’ he got less, more negative responses than what he got when he sent of the same applications named ‘Evans’. So in conclusion, both internal and external factors are extremely important as the internal factors can affect them directly when they are doing work in school but the external factors can affect how hard they work to try to give themselves a good start outside of school as well as how hard they try at home after school. This makes them both as important as eachother.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Elementary School and Josh Wilson Eng

Elementary School and Josh Wilson Eng Elementary School and Josh Wilson Eng- 111 Essay Josh Wilson ENG-111 24 August 2013 I Believe in Acceptance As a child, I always saw my sister as a normal person. We played, and laughed. She was only a year older than me. She was not only my sister; but she was my playmate, my partner in crime, and most importantly my best friend. However, I was too young to know just how special she was. When I started elementary school, I started to notice how different my sister was. She didn’t look like the other kids, and she didn’t act like the other kids. I would see her from time to time within the hallways of our small elementary school. Her class was small, and the kids looked and acted different than everyone else. This is when I became curious to why my sister was different. My sister has Down’s syndrome, which is a congenital disorder arising from a chromosome defect, causing intellectual impairment and physical abnormalities. Once I was in middle school I learned about Down’s syndrome. I learned about its effects, and why people are born with this disorder. Down syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. According to the National Down’s Syndrome Society, one in every 691 babies born in the United States are born with Down’s syndrome. There never was a time in my life where I have disowned my sister, or was embarrassed to be with her in public. Instead of being mad at God for her disability, I embraced it. I helped my mother out when she needed me, and I

Monday, October 21, 2019

Change in Medical Marijuana Essay

Change in Medical Marijuana Essay Change in Medical Marijuana Essay Final Draft May 3, 2013 Barrett, D. (2009, Feb. 7) Change in U.S. Medical Marijuana Policy Likely The Times West Virginian Retrieved 4,29, 2013 From, Http// news/x681698441/change-in-us-medical-marijuana-policy-1 A hopeful change in U.S. medical marijuana policy is likely, (Barrett, D 2009) to happen. The White House and Drug Enforcement Administration will not say for sure, but there could be some changes made. In 2009 it was said that, â€Å" Experts believe the Obama Administration will change the strategy and the law on medical marijuana†. (Barrett, D. ) 2009). â€Å" The President believes that federal resources should not be circumventing state laws, and as he continues to appoint senior leadership to fill out the ranks of the Federal Government, he expects them to review their policy with that in mind† said White House spokesman Nick Shapiro (Barrett, D. 2009). Thirteen states have laws permitting the use of medical marijuana: California for instance is unique for the presence of dispenser Aries, and businesses that sell marijuana, though dispensaries are illegal under federal law. It might be the law, â€Å"but contradicts the medical marijuana position of the power of the new president† (Barrett, D. 2009). Over time the Obama Administration eventually will instruct the Department of Agriculture empathetically to cut back on raids of dispensaries to conduct raids only on businesses. Who is to say the government can play the role of God and decide if a person is in pain or not? West Virginia is not one of the thirteen states medical marijuana is legal, it should be. I am speaking from experience with my mother who had multiplemyoloma, who was in a lot of pain, and

Sunday, October 20, 2019

9 Tips for Handling a Difficult Coworker

9 Tips for Handling a Difficult Coworker No matter where you work, there always seems to be at least one coworker who is difficult to deal with. Sometimes, that coworker even turns into a bully, and that can affect your job performance and self-esteem when all you want to do it get along and get the job done. If you let it go, you can end up losing your temper, and that could adversely affect you both personally and professionally. However, there are some ways you can get along or defuse the situation to make life easier on the job. 1. Difficult CoworkersAll work situations have difficult coworkers from health care jobs to sales jobs. It may be the office gossip, the one who never seems to be able to get the job done without help or the serial dodger, who never seems to take responsibility and blames everyone else for his or her shortcomings. Then there is the nasty coworker, who never has anything nice to say about you, no matter what. Your first step in dealing with difficult coworkers is to identify who they are to ensur e you aren’t blaming the wrong person.2. Discuss the ProblemWith a workplace bully or backstabber, it may be necessary to confront the person instead of letting the behavior continue. Having a calm discussion about the problem may have a surprising response. Some people do not realize the adverse impact their statements and actions have on others and be genuinely surprised and taken aback. Try to talk reasonably and hold your temper, but let the person know that you will take the issue to a superior if the actions continue.3. Talk to a FriendA little unbiased opinion is never harmful, so talking over your coworker situation with a friend can be a good idea. It not only lets you vent your frustrations but can give you an unbiased opinion of what may be going on and how to handle the situation.4. Use Humor to Defuse a SituationWhile this type of tactic can work for some people, not everyone is able to make a humorous comment to defuse a situation spontaneously. A light bit of h umor might be the tactic for you if you have a funny side.5. Have an Exit StrategyHaving an excuse to get away from a difficult coworker can help. Whether inventing a phone call you have to make, work you have to do right away or another excuse, spend as little time with the toxic coworker as possible. When people realize they aren’t being listened to, they give up.6. Keep Your Co-Worker Problem PrivateYou don’t want your character questioned, so maintain your cool when faced with a problem co-worker. Complaining to others in the office might get you branded as a problem yourself, so keep any complaining down to those in your family or a close friend outside the office. Going public with grievances is always a bad idea.7. Be Bigger Than Your Co-WorkerYou know the old adage, â€Å"You can attract more flies with honey than with vinegar.† This applies to coworkers too. It doesn’t mean you have to come in every day with a new joke or be the person who organi zes birthday parties. However, just being pleasant, smiling and polite can improve another person’s attitude toward you.8. A Friend Can’t Be an EnemyWhile it doesn’t work in all cases, being friendly but not overly friendly to a difficult coworker can produce positive results. If the problem is gossip, having a friendly conversation can set things straight. If, on the other hand, the coworker is trying to take credit for work you have done, you can let your boss know beforehand that you are working on a certain aspect of a project, so you will get the credit.9 Go to Your BossNo one likes to do this, but sometimes there is no other choice if your requests to your toxic coworker have fallen on deaf ears. If you do decide to take the matter up with your supervisor, make sure to go armed with the information you need to make your case. Take notes on how this person’s actions are affecting your work and productivity on projects, and write down exactly what tha t person is doing to adversely affect your work.Whether working in a health care job or another field, there are ways to deal with toxic coworkers to make your job easier. Searching for a job can be easier too. TheJobNetwork lets you enter your job interests and qualifications and does the job search for you. All you have to do is enter your qualifications and interests in employment, and you will receive job alerts via email to choose which jobs interest you. To get started now, sign up with TheJobNetwork.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Case 3 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Case 3 - Assignment Example In several situations such as missing employee motivation; customers’ dissatisfaction or for that matter when a change process needs to be initiated, it becomes imperative to apply EI knowledge for favorable outcomes. EI play an important role in developing remarkable leaders because empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal relationships are the key factors that any leader must have in order to create organizational development. Specific actions are needed to enhance the use of EI frameworks in the organization; moreover, EI can be taught and promoted within the organization. EI can be a developmental experience for all, no matter what role he or she occupies. All decision makers within the organization need to understand the importance of EI and must be trained for enhancing their effectiveness in the organization. For the reasons mentioned above, EI needs to be linked with leadership competency models because EI provides a complete roadmap so that leaders can reach to their full potential. Critique Only a couple of years back, intelligence quotient (IQ) was considered everything while measuring the leadership ability. As organizations began expanding keeping focus on customers’ needs, it was soon realized that human resource plays a pivotal role in success and failure of the organization because firms now operate in a fiercely competitive arena. Organizations need not be just efficient but effective too. It is the effectiveness that provides competitive edge over competition in the market place; moreover, certain leadership qualities are essential for making the organization effective. And EQ or EI defines how effective the leadership is in managing the organizational workforce to achieve organizational goals. Roger Pearman has rightly pointed towards certain characteristics that a manger or leader needs to demonstrate. Apart from having some of the known qualities such as integrity, a vision to see beyond, and ability to communicate, they also exhibit some of the unique traits and skills that form an integral part of their compelling leadership style. These traits are essential to deal, manage and motivate workforce in the organizational for desired outcomes. These traits are measured in terms of emotional intelligence (EI) that decide leaders' empathy towards workforce; their ability to inspire and motivate employees at all levels for achieving organizational goals; problem solving capacity; resolving intradepartmental conflicts and so on. Self regulation, motivation, social skill, empathy and self regulation are cornerstones of EI. While social skill brings persuasiveness and effectiveness in bringing change, empathy imparts cross-cultural sensitivity. Ability to motivate is an important trait found in leader but self-awareness and self-regulation are extremely important traits that speak about leader’s openness to change. It is not appropriate to define EI in terms of weaknesses and threats. If EI assessment is not a simple exercise than that is only because it is relatively a new branch of estimating human strengths and therefore, it is obvious that limited experts are available to estimate and facilitate EI processes. Similarly, any new branch of knowledge is going to make people scare for the reason of natural inertia that prevents them to explore something new; however, simply because of this reason it cannot be classified as threats. Being a proven science, it provides a sure

Friday, October 18, 2019

No Child Left Behind Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

No Child Left Behind - Essay Example eir demands and requirements, in spite of claims that this recent legislative process will enhance the academic performance of the elementary and secondary schools in the United States. Nevertheless, evaluations between adolescent literacy investigation and the recent U.S. federal guidelines offer a distinct opportunity to analyze what people have gained knowledge about adolescent literacy, re-verifying and bolstering some of people’s ideas and raising concerns about prospective directions (Stecher, 2003). Recognizing the matters surrounding learners with disabilities within a standards-governed system necessitates an acknowledgement of the vagueness between the ideas of individual rights as it has developed at the latter stage of the twentieth century in United States and an educational scheme that advances a normative perspective of fairness. Basically, both ideas surfaced from an understanding of the legitimate assurance to the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The framework of individual rights perceives that every individual would evenly enter into and revenue from societal organizations. This initial interpretation of individual rights in the United States asserted in contrary to the government’s control of economic or social systems, involving schools, and education was legitimately postponed to each American state. An important transition in this construct of individual rights started when reformers initiated to perceive government’s objectivit y or nonparticipation from intervention with the individual as detrimental to many (ibid). People of race, the impoverished and the disabled were not safeguarded under the former ideas of individual rights and, as a matter of fact, were rejected access to the same privileges that others enjoy. Though it should be a concern of educators that every child performs at an early level of literacy, it is merely as significant to take note of the learning demands of those who perform well

Disability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Disability - Essay Example However, the experiences encountered served to improve the quality of my life. Through medical treatment, I even visited the US a number of times, a luxury several individuals lacked. ‘You are a very lucky child’ my mother kept telling me. I did not know the meaning of that until I could dance and exercise with my friends at 18 years old. Among the triplets, I was the only one born with a disability. My right foot was completely disabled and found it as if all hell was on me when it came to walking. I later came to note that it was ‘club foot’ as referred to by doctors. Initially, it was a nightmare for me to understand because of two reasons: I was a child and was the only one with the disability. ‘Why me’ I wondered most of the times. However, most of the doctors in my city (Maracaibo as one of them) claimed that even with the surgery and therapy that I was to undergo, it was not a guarantee for a normal life like other human beings. My parents’ resilience in searching for a competent doctor resulted in a contact with a Miami based doctor. He was a specialist and dealt with clubfoot in children. His name was Doctor Peter Romano. He was my ‘savior’ as he assured me that I would walk again and continue with my duties just as the other kids would do. As activists claim, the disabled have to go against all social, economic, political, and legal odds to make it in life. Davis identifies the historical struggles that the disabled underwent to secure the same privileges as guaranteed by the law (Davis, 16). However, I was lucky as the people around me supported me in all ways. Following intense research, I found out that clubfoot has no main cause and is caused by many syndromes (Adams 12). ‘Do your job as long as she will walk like me’ I recall my mother saying to the doctor. At the time, stigma in relation to disability study was a major factor affecting the U.S. (Longmore 350). However, the breakthrough

Chemistry of common preservatives Research Paper

Chemistry of common preservatives - Research Paper Example A great amount of interchangeability does not exist because of specific inhibitory actions towards bacteria, or molds or yeasts. Although microbes may not be avoided in non-sterile preparations, attempts are made to ensure that potentially pathogenic microbes are absent. The presence and subsequent growth of microbes may lead to many chemical changes and loss of quality of food preparations, pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. The potential for this loss of quality may occur at any of the many stages between acquisition of the raw material and eventual consumption of the finished product. The history of chemical and physical preservation is closely associated with the history and development of antimicrobial agents. Since the ancient times a scientific basis of antisepsis, disinfection and preservation has evolved over the last 150-160 years. Modern research brings to light that the use of preservatives has not been an alien concept to mankind in history. For centuries, preservatives, in the natural form, have been used in the pickling process, development of dyes and colors, prevention of microbial action on wounds, perishable goods such as vegetables, dairy etc. The Native Americans even relied on the use of adding bacteria the drying process1 .The most amazing and innovative use of preserving agents was exhibited by the Egyptians in the mummification process of the dead bodies of the rulers. The use of oils and resins to quicken or slow down the decaying process were used to best effect by the Egyptian Civilization. Nowadays, food preservation has dramatically reduced, Combination of preservatives may reduce overall concentration of a preservative and natural preservative system could replace the classical ones to minimize the adverse effects. It is the simplest acid of aromatic series. It is permitted as a preservative in food-stuffs, drugs and cosmetics as sodium or potassium salt of benzoic acid. It is

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Difference between intelligent and wisdom Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Difference between intelligent and wisdom - Essay Example The need to find the truth behind the functioning of different world phenomena and nature makes knowledge equally necessary for humankind. Knowledge, from the philosophical standpoint, may include that which emanates from an individual’s intellect or possession of wisdom. The debate on the distinctions that exist between intellect and wisdom attracts the consideration of several philosophical concepts. From a philosophical perspective, it is incontrovertible that both intelligence and wisdom constitute knowledge. This brings the question of how knowledge based on intelligence differs from that with a foundation on wisdom. Many philosophical attributes to intelligence relate it to the ability to embrace rational reasoning. Rationality, as pertains to reasoning, involves individuality of thought and reasoning. Knowledge gained through experience after an expansive span of time would bring wisdom. Lifelong education coupled with the various instances, through which one acquires k nowledge, are avenues that contribute to the acquisition of wisdom that individual posses. However, there is difference between information acquisition over a long time and the level of an individual’s wisdom. ... Wise individuals tend to concentrate on the desire and enthusiasm of redefining old truths and philosophical perspectives and ideas that may present confusing and divergent opinions. Wisdom, therefore, is a basis on which there is the gain of a deep understanding of ideas beyond existing theories. Generally, this comes with high advancement in an individual’s age. The relation of redefinition of phenomena to old age emanates from the necessity to relate past events to present situations. This renders the elderly part of the population well advanced, in age, to relate events over time. The various concerns that wisdom explore include the search for humanity and morality in the society. Knowledge of intellects and the wise may also differ in their forms of approach. An intellect would acquire knowledge through scientific means that are explainable in a way that detaches the individual from the context in study. It is purely abstract an explained through theoretical points of vie w. This renders intellect as impersonal and unrelated from the person. Intellectual knowledge, therefore, is self-governing through contextual explanations rather than based on attributes to the person who posses it. Wisdom, however, adopts a contrary approach from intellect. It assumes a spiritual approach to defining different phenomena. The wise are anxious about life-defining issues as the significance of life. In the definition and contextualization of most subjects, wise individuals adopt a personal approach. The premises in the discourse to finding an answer to a situation and concern do not depend on rigid theories that have empirical proofs. Instead, the wise finds solutions based on their personal feelings and their experience, over time, that helps in explaining their opinions.

Ethics in Free Market Economy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethics in Free Market Economy - Research Paper Example Social justice issues related to the costs of group membership can come up in any size of a group. Benefits of group membership are also allocated through social justice mechanisms. There are certain distributive principles of social justice out of which Neo-liberal or Libertarian view will be discussed (Barusch, 2009). (Somerville & Sprigings, 2005) The distributive principle of libertarian concept says: From each according to his choice; to each according to his product (Barusch, 2009). Allocation of resources according to a product is central under the libertarian view of distribution. Libertarians believe in liberty over equality. They are of the opinion that inequality is acceptable and fosters social being and welfare in a society. Equal treatment in distribution ultimately leads to unequal distribution of resources. This is the price for freedom and government need not interfere (Barusch, 2009). Libertarians focus on the benefits of a free market over a system controlled by th e government. The reason being a free market society enjoys greater productivity among its workers and greater incentive to generate capital (Barusch, 2009). Free Market Economy Supporters of the free market economy claim that individuals should be allowed to make contracts with others regarding wages and prices and profits. People should be free to compete with each other to gain maximum benefit. They believe that if markets are set free, the outcome will be just and fair distribution of gains and responsibilities in society. People who support a free market economy will never support unregulated markets (Finifter, 2009). Free markets ensure the efficient distribution of goods to those who grab the opportunities to obtain their desired products and services. Free markets operate on people’s demands. They produce only those products which are demanded by the consumers. Consumers set their desired price. Free markets work for people, for the betterment and welfare of the socie ty (Boyes & Melvin, 2009). In free markets, prices are determined by both buyers and sellers in the market.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Chemistry of common preservatives Research Paper

Chemistry of common preservatives - Research Paper Example A great amount of interchangeability does not exist because of specific inhibitory actions towards bacteria, or molds or yeasts. Although microbes may not be avoided in non-sterile preparations, attempts are made to ensure that potentially pathogenic microbes are absent. The presence and subsequent growth of microbes may lead to many chemical changes and loss of quality of food preparations, pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. The potential for this loss of quality may occur at any of the many stages between acquisition of the raw material and eventual consumption of the finished product. The history of chemical and physical preservation is closely associated with the history and development of antimicrobial agents. Since the ancient times a scientific basis of antisepsis, disinfection and preservation has evolved over the last 150-160 years. Modern research brings to light that the use of preservatives has not been an alien concept to mankind in history. For centuries, preservatives, in the natural form, have been used in the pickling process, development of dyes and colors, prevention of microbial action on wounds, perishable goods such as vegetables, dairy etc. The Native Americans even relied on the use of adding bacteria the drying process1 .The most amazing and innovative use of preserving agents was exhibited by the Egyptians in the mummification process of the dead bodies of the rulers. The use of oils and resins to quicken or slow down the decaying process were used to best effect by the Egyptian Civilization. Nowadays, food preservation has dramatically reduced, Combination of preservatives may reduce overall concentration of a preservative and natural preservative system could replace the classical ones to minimize the adverse effects. It is the simplest acid of aromatic series. It is permitted as a preservative in food-stuffs, drugs and cosmetics as sodium or potassium salt of benzoic acid. It is

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Ethics in Free Market Economy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethics in Free Market Economy - Research Paper Example Social justice issues related to the costs of group membership can come up in any size of a group. Benefits of group membership are also allocated through social justice mechanisms. There are certain distributive principles of social justice out of which Neo-liberal or Libertarian view will be discussed (Barusch, 2009). (Somerville & Sprigings, 2005) The distributive principle of libertarian concept says: From each according to his choice; to each according to his product (Barusch, 2009). Allocation of resources according to a product is central under the libertarian view of distribution. Libertarians believe in liberty over equality. They are of the opinion that inequality is acceptable and fosters social being and welfare in a society. Equal treatment in distribution ultimately leads to unequal distribution of resources. This is the price for freedom and government need not interfere (Barusch, 2009). Libertarians focus on the benefits of a free market over a system controlled by th e government. The reason being a free market society enjoys greater productivity among its workers and greater incentive to generate capital (Barusch, 2009). Free Market Economy Supporters of the free market economy claim that individuals should be allowed to make contracts with others regarding wages and prices and profits. People should be free to compete with each other to gain maximum benefit. They believe that if markets are set free, the outcome will be just and fair distribution of gains and responsibilities in society. People who support a free market economy will never support unregulated markets (Finifter, 2009). Free markets ensure the efficient distribution of goods to those who grab the opportunities to obtain their desired products and services. Free markets operate on people’s demands. They produce only those products which are demanded by the consumers. Consumers set their desired price. Free markets work for people, for the betterment and welfare of the socie ty (Boyes & Melvin, 2009). In free markets, prices are determined by both buyers and sellers in the market.

Process Design Matrix Design and Summary Essay Example for Free

Process Design Matrix Design and Summary Essay Prepaid food service and automobile are being selected for a service and a product for identifying suitable process design approaches. For managing effective services and delivering on-site service, there are three approaches: product line approach, self-service approach, and the personal attention approach (Larson Gray, 2006). Product Line Approach: The focus of the product line approach is on the efficient production of products and services. In this approach, the company controls the execution of each phase in order to ensure quick delivery and high-quality mix of prepaid foods in a clean environment (Chase, et al. 2006). To ensure effective delivery of high quality prepaid food services, this approach will be most beneficial to the company. Self-service Approach: by involving customers in the production of services, the efficiency of service process can be enhanced (Larson Gray, 2006). This approach will benefit the food company by offering high-quality products to the customers and reducing time of service delivery (Chase, et al. 2006). The Personal Attention Approach: this approach emphasizes developing a relationship between the sales force and customers, ensuring effective customer services. Using this approach will help the company in developing strong relationship and building customer loyalty. Similarly, for managing the production of products, there are different types of design processes including job shop, batch production, assembly line and continuous flow. Job Shop Process: in this process, task completion is handled by a single worker or a group of workers. There can be a wide range of products and services such as shipbuilding, bridge construction, hairdresser and tailor involving use of low technology to high technology can use the job shop process approach (Sowell, 2006). Batch Production: in this approach, a process is divided into parts and before going to the next operation, and a particular part is performed on the complete batch. This approach is suitable for cases when small to moderate volumes of various products must be made. The batch production approach will not be suitable for automobile production. Assembly Line: This approach is believed to be the most suitable for automobile production. To effectively manufacture an automobile, the material flows along a moving assembly line and passes through different work stations at which operations are performed (Verweire Berghe, 2004). To make the work flow smoothly, equal time is allotted to complete the operations at each station. References Chase, R. B. et. al. (2006). Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. USA: McGraw-Hill International. Larson, E. W. Gray, C. F. (2006). Project Management: The Managerial Process. USA: McGraw- Hill International. Sowell, T. J. (2006). Strategic Manufacturing Management. USA: Xlibris Corporation. Verweire, K. Berghe, L. V. D. (2004). Integrated Performance Management: A Guide to Strategy Implementation. USA: SAGE.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Key concepts of structural family therapy

Key concepts of structural family therapy Salvador Minuchins work proved to be interesting and very insightful. The information presented allowed me to see family therapy through a systematic lens. Minuchins most lasting contribution to the field of family therapy involved a theory of family structure and a set of guidelines to organize therapeutic techniques. I would like to give a brief summary of Minuchins life, in addition to some key concepts and interventions that made his journey unique. Minuchun (2010) was originally born in Argentina and served in the Israeli army. He traveled to the United States and trained in child psychiatry (Nichols, 2010). In 1954, Minuchin began psychoanalytic training at the William Alanson White Institute where he studied the interpersonal psychiatry of Harry Stack Sullivan. After leaving the White Institute, Minuchin (2010) took a job at the Wiltwyck School for delinquent boys, where he suggested to his staff that they start seeing families. According to Nichols (2010), the success of Minu chins work with families at Wiltwyck led to a groundbreaking book, Families of the Sums (1967), which first outlined the structural model. Minuchins (2010) reputation as a virtuoso therapist grew, and he became the director of the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic in 1965. By the 1970s, structural family therapy had become the most widely practiced of all systems of family therapy. Minuchin (2010) stepped down as director of the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic in 1976 and started his own center in New York, where he practiced until 1996. Key Concepts There are many key concepts to be explained or defined in Structural Family Therapy. In 2010, Nichols defines family structure as a way the family is organized into subsystems and how the interaction among those subsystems is regulated by boundaries. The process of a familys interaction is like the patterns of conversation at the dinner table (Nichols, 2010). The structure of the family is where the members sit in relation to one another. Within families, boundaries are established. Boundaries are invisible barriers that regulate contact with others and can be rigid, clear, or diffused. According to Nichols (2010), diffuse boundaries exist between a couple if they call each other at work frequently, neither has their own friends or independent activities and they view themselves only as a pair rather than as two separate personalities. In retrospect, theyve established a rigid boundary if they spend little time together, have separate bedrooms, take separate vacations, have different checking accounts, and are more invested in careers or outside relationships than in th eir relationship (Nichols, 2010). Boundary making is negotiating the boundaries between members of a relationship, the actual relationship and the outside world (Nichols, 2010). Nichols (2010) defines another form of a relationship as the concept of cross-generational coalition. This is an inappropriate alliance between a parent and a child, who side together against a third member of the family (Nichols, 2010). The concept of accommodation is when elements of a system automatically adjust to coordinate their functioning. Some people may need to work at this. In Structural Therapy, the therapists attempt to join the family. The concept of joining is accepting and accommodating to families to win their confidence and circumvent resistance (Nichols, 2010 p. 462). The key structural term of enactments is an interaction stimulated in structural therapy in order to observe and then change transactions that make up family structure (Nichols, 2010). According to Nichols (2010), empathy is used in structural family therapy to show understanding of the families beliefs and feelings. How Problems Arise and are Maintained According to Nichols (2010), what distinguishes normal families isnt the absence of a problem. The true origin of the problem derives within the Functional structure for dealing organization (Nichols, 2010 p. 176). They also believe that modifications in structure are required with them. Structural family therapists believe that problems are maintained by a dysfunctional family when a family or one of its members encounters external pressures (a parent is laid off, the family moves) and when developmental transitions are reached (a child reaches adolescence, parents retire). Healthy families accommodate to changed circumstances. According to Nichols (2010), less-adaptive families increase the rigidity of structures that are no longer functional. Structural therapists believe that in disengaged families, boundaries are rigid and the family fails to mobilize support when needed. Whereas in enmeshed families, boundaries are diffused and family members become dependent on one another (Nichols, 2010). What Needs to Happen for Change to Occur According to Nichols (2010), Structural Therapy changes behavior by opening alternative patterns of interaction that can modify family structures. It isnt necessarily a matter of creating new structures, but of activating dormant ones (Nichols, 2010). Structural family therapists produce change by joining the family, probing for areas of flexibility, and then activating dormant structural alternatives (Nichols, 2010 p. 177). According to Nichols (2010), the first task is to understand the familys view of their problems. The structural therapist will use enactments and spontaneous behavior sequences to better understand the families structure (Nichols, 2010). Nichols states (2010); the therapist first defines or recognizes a problematic sequence. Second, the therapist directs an enactment. Third, and most important, the therapist must guide the family to modify the enactments (Nichols, 2010). All of the therapists strategies should create new options for the family and options for productive interaction (Nichols, 2010). Interventions/Techniques According to Nichols (2010), Minuchin used three overlapping phases in the process of Structural Family therapy. The therapist joins the family in position of leadership; maps their underlying structure; and intervenes to transform this structure. The structural therapist believes that the strategy of therapy must be organized. Within this organization, the structural therapist uses seven steps that could be considered interventions or techniques. The first step is joining and accommodating. In this step, the therapist attempts to disarm defenses by building an alliance of understanding within each member of the family (Nichols, 2010 p. 180). In the second step the therapist provokes family members to talk among the selves to produce enactments. Enactments help the therapist discover many things about a familys structure (Nichols, 2010). According the Nichols (2010), structural family therapists try to assess the interrelationship of all family members by the third step of structural mapping. In the fourth step, structural therapists highlight and modify interactions. In this step the therapist may use the technique of intensity which is facilitated by using strong affect repeated intervention or prolonged pressure (Nichols, 2010 p.464). Shaping competence is another method of modifying interactions by highlighting and reinforcing the positive (Nichols, 2010). The fifth step distinguishes boundary making or the negotiation of boundaries between members of a relationship and between members of the outside world (Nichols, 2010). The sixth step consists of unbalancing. In this step the therapist aims to change the relationship within a subsystem (Nichols, 2010 p. 186). Finally, in the seventh step the therapist challenges unproductive assumptions that support structural problems (Nichols, 2010). The Goal of Therapy Structural Family therapists direct therapy at altering family structure so that the family can solve its problems (Nichols, 2010 p. 176). Structural problems are viewed as a failure to adjust to changing circumstances. Therefore, structural therapists see their work as activating latent adaptive structures that are already in client families repertoires (Simon, 1995 p. 176). First, the structural family therapist joins the family system to help its members change their structure. By altering boundaries and realigning subsystems, the therapist is able to change the behavior and experience of each family member (Nichols, 2010). For a structural therapist, one of the most important goals of therapy is the creation of an effective hierarchy (Nichols, 2010). According to Nichols (2010), another common goal of a structural therapist is to help parents function together as an executive subsystem. In contrast, the goal within enmeshed families is to differentiate individuals and subsystems by strengthening the boundaries around them. The goal with disengaged families is to make boundaries more permeable (Nichols, 2010 p. 177). How the Therapeutic Alliance is or Can be Addressed (Task, Bond, Goals) Structural Family therapists would like for clients to be in agreement with them on the tasks that they require clients to do in therapy. For example, if clients are now willing to engage in enactments, the therapist will not be able to gain an understanding of the families structural make up. Also, if clients are unwilling to do tasks like changing seating arraignments, then it could be difficult for the therapist to attempt to restructure the family boundaries. In Structure Family therapy, the therapeutic bond between the client and therapist is very important. The therapeutic bond is the foundation of structural family therapy because it helps the family trust the therapist. According to Nichols (2010), the therapist must first disarm defenses and ease anxiety. This is done by building an alliance of understanding with each member of the family. Joining, as the empathic connection is called, opens the way for family members to begin listening to each other while establishing a bon d with the therapist that enables them to accept the challenges to come (Nichols, 2010 p. 181). Without this therapeutic bond it would be hard to get families to agree upon or complete tasks given. When the therapist does not effectively join the family, a therapeutic bond is not created. Therefore, challenging of any kind could be met with resistance. Although it doesnt appear to be much goal setting in structural family therapy, it is important that the client and therapist agree on what needs to be accomplished as an end result. There needs to be some sort of ultimate goal in order for the family and therapist to know when the therapy has been successful. It is important that this is agreed upon by the therapist and family. Todays structural family therapists place more of an emphasis on helping families understand their organization (Nichols, 2010 p. 180). How Gender and Diversity/Culture Can Be Incorporated Into the Theory Since Salvador Minuchin began work on his therapeutic model of structural family therapy times have changed. More awareness has since been given to understanding diversity, culture and gender issues. It is apparent that Minuchin has been very aware of the impact of socioeconomic and cultural environment on family and individual functioning. It is important for structural therapists to understand and consider that not all family structures will look the same. Some families may have single parent families. Therefore, the power in the hierarchy may look different from a traditional two parent family. Different ethnic groups may appear to have a closeness that is very normal for that group or culture, but could appear to be enmeshed from the perspective of a therapist who was raised in a more individualistic society. It is imperative that the therapist understands his or her own cultural constructs about what a family structure should look like and be careful not to apply it to clients o f other cultural back grounds. The structural model offers the conceptual framework and the vocabulary for addressing organizational patterns, boundaries, and subsystems. It has yet to apply the framework to the dimension of gender-either to the gender-based on arrangements in the construction of marital/parental subsystem (Scheikman, 1988 p. 27), or to the gendered coalitions across generations amongst sister or brothers. According to Goldner, the generational distinction is a major focus of attention without notice taken of the distinction between genders (1985). Husbands and wives have been conceptualized as a marital or parental unit, with the most salient distinguishing feature between them ignored, perhaps to avoid falling back into an individualistic view in noting sex differences. In fact, structural family therapy diagrams, until recently, made no gender distinctions (Goldner, 1985). It is important for structural family therapists to be constantly aware and sensitive to different diversity, cultural, and gender issues that may relate to clients when doing therapy. We all come from different backgrounds and receive information differently. After summarizing structural therapy, I am now able to understand the different subsystems and boundaries from a structural point of view. Considering Minuchins structural therapy when working with diverse relationships can be a useful framework when working with todays families.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Rose For Emily Essay -- essays research papers

A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner Emily was a woman that cannot be described without a the words â€Å" not quite normal†, and â€Å"extra ordinary.† The story, â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner is about one woman’s life, from her being a teen to her death in her house. The town’s people did not like her, her family did not like her, but when she died, everybody showed up to Miss Emily’s Funeral. The only person to see Emily was her old manservant, a black man that was the cook and the gardener. The only time that the town would see him was when her went to the grocery store to shop. He would never talk to anybody while he was there. The end of her life never saw Emily out of her house. The town questioned this, but Emily soon just became another story with the town. Miss Emily was not always alone. When she was younger, her father lived at the house with her. He was a man without his sanity. When ever a male would come to the house to see Emily, he would great them at the door, and see them off before Emily could even say hello. The town used this excuse for Emily when her father died. He was dead for three days before she would let the coroner to take him out of the house. This can be seen as the beginning of Emily’s decent to madness. Emily was not always without a man. The town was getting sidewalks put in, and a group of colored men from the north was called in to build them. Their Foreman went by the ...

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Eyes Have It Essay example -- Photgraph Descriptive Essays

The Eyes Have It I chose to write about a picture, and the particular picture that I chose to write about was of a young woman from Afghanistan, who was estimated to be the age of twelve. The photograph became famous after it graced the cover of the June 1985 National Geographic. The young woman was beautiful beyond any words, let alone mine. She had long, dark hair and tanned skin. Her face, to me, was a dichotomy between rough features, exposed to the ravages of poverty and war, yet with a soft beauty underneath. She had well-defined cheekbones, and a pronounced chin. Her head was covered by a red burka, which further brought out the green and gold within her eyes. They say that the eyes are the window of the soul. I do not believe that, but I do believe that her eyes have seen things which would test the souls of the most worldly of people. Her eyes burnt defiantly, with a fiery glint that seemed to bore through any person who looked into them. Her eyes are what everyone seemed to notice the most of all. Like a cat, they seemed to focus the light around her, and took on an almost supernatural presence. She had all the allure of a supermodel, or a sultry silver screen siren. She wore a countenance of defiance. It isn’t immediately clear why she was angry†¦ but most would assume that she was angry about her life and upbringing. In actuality, she was also angry at being photographed. It was one of those great moments in photographic history. Whether it’s a sailor kissing a random nurse on VJ Day, or a fireman pulling a baby from the rubble of the Oklahoma City bombing, or a Veitnamese citizen being executed by an American soldi er, there are some photographs that take on both a life and a symbolism of their own. This p... ... background, it allows a person to fill in their own blanks about where she is from. And by sticking to her face, and not a whole body shot, it puts a face on the cause itself. Years later, the original photographer went back to Afghanistan to find this woman. It’s a miracle that she was found. Afghanistan has few roads and phones, and she lived in a remote region, far removed from what would pass as â€Å"civilization† in Afghanistan. It’s amazing that she even survived over the years, but survive she did. Years of hard living eroded her natural beauty, and her features grew coarse. She’s now a simple, uneducated wife, who covers herself before all except her husband. But she allowed one more photograph to be taken of herself, and while her eyes look somewhat duller, they’re still the unmistakably brilliant eyes that captured a world’s attention some two decades ago.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Lost Symbol Chapter 40-43

CHAPTER 40 What's taking Trish so long? Katherine Solomon checked her watch again. She'd forgotten to warn Dr. Abaddon about the bizarre commute to her lab, but she couldn't imagine the darkness had slowed them down this much. They should have arrived by now. Katherine walked over to the exit and heaved open the lead-lined door, staring out into the void. She listened for a moment, but heard nothing. â€Å"Trish?† she called out, her voice swallowed by the darkness. Silence. Puzzled, she closed the door, took out her cell phone, and called the lobby. â€Å"This is Katherine. Is Trish out there?† â€Å"No, ma'am,† the lobby guard said. â€Å"She and your guest headed back about ten minutes ago.† â€Å"Really? I don't think they're even inside Pod Five yet.† â€Å"Hold on. I'll check.† Katherine could hear the guard's fingers clicking on his computer keyboard. â€Å"You're right. According to Ms. Dunne's key-card logs, she has not yet opened the Pod Five door. Her last access event was about eight minutes ago . . . at Pod Three. I guess she's giving your guest a little tour on his way in.† Katherine frowned. Apparently. The news was a bit odd, but at least she knew Trish wouldn't be long in Pod 3. The smell in there is terrible. â€Å"Thanks. Has my brother arrived yet?† â€Å"No, ma'am, not yet.† â€Å"Thank you.† As Katherine hung up, she felt an unexpected twinge of trepidation. The uneasy feeling made her pause, but only for a moment. It was the same exact disquiet she'd felt earlier when she stepped into Dr. Abaddon's house. Embarrassingly, her feminine intuition had failed her there. Badly. It's nothing, Katherine told herself. CHAPTER 41 Robert Langdon studied the stone pyramid. This isn't possible. â€Å"An ancient encoded language,† Sato said without looking up. â€Å"Tell me, does this qualify?† On the newly exposed face of the pyramid, a series of sixteen characters was precisely engraved into the smooth stone. Beside Langdon, Anderson's mouth now gaped open, mirroring Langdon's own shock. The security chief looked like he had just seen some kind of alien keypad. â€Å"Professor?† Sato said. â€Å"I assume you can read this?† Langdon turned. â€Å"Why would you assume that?† â€Å"Because you were brought here, Professor. You were chosen. This inscription appears to be a code of some sort, and considering your reputation, it seems obvious to me that you were brought here to decipher it.† Langdon had to admit that after his experiences in Rome and Paris, he'd received a steady flow of requests asking for his help deciphering some of history's great unsolved codes–the Phaistos Disk, the Dorabella Cipher, the mysterious Voynich Manuscript. Sato ran her finger over the inscription. â€Å"Can you tell me the meaning of these icons?† They're not icons, Langdon thought. They're symbols. The language was one he had recognized immediately–an encrypted cipher language from the seventeenth century. Langdon knew very well how to break it. â€Å"Ma'am,† he said, feeling hesitant, â€Å"this pyramid is Peter's private property.† â€Å"Private or not, if this code is indeed the reason you were brought to Washington, I am not giving you a choice in the matter. I want to know what it says.† Sato's BlackBerry pinged loudly, and she yanked the device from her pocket, studying the incoming message for several moments. Langdon was amazed that the Capitol Building's internal wireless network provided service this far down. Sato grunted and raised her eyebrows, giving Langdon an odd look. â€Å"Chief Anderson?† she said, turning to him. â€Å"A word in private, if I may?† The director motioned for Anderson to join her, and they disappeared into the pitch-black hallway, leaving Langdon alone in the flickering candlelight of Peter's Chamber of Reflection. Chief Anderson wondered when this night would end. A severed hand in my Rotunda? A death shrine in my basement? Bizarre engravings on a stone pyramid? Somehow, the Redskins game no longer felt significant. As he followed Sato into the darkness of the hall, Anderson flicked on his flashlight. The beam was weak but better than nothing. Sato led him down the hall a few yards, out of sight of Langdon. â€Å"Have a look at this,† she whispered, handing Anderson her BlackBerry. Anderson took the device and squinted at the illuminated screen. It displayed a black-and-white image–the X-ray of Langdon's bag that Anderson had requested be sent to Sato. As in all X- rays, the objects of greatest density appeared in the brightest white. In Langdon's bag, a lone item outshone everything else. Obviously extremely dense, the object glowed like a dazzling jewel in a murky jumble of other items. Its shape was unmistakable. He's been carrying that all night? Anderson looked over at Sato in surprise. â€Å"Why didn't Langdon mention this?† â€Å"Damned good question,† Sato whispered. â€Å"The shape . . . it can't be coincidence.† â€Å"No,† Sato said, her tone angry now. â€Å"I would say not.† A faint rustle in the corridor drew Anderson's attention. Startled, he pointed his flashlight down the black passageway. The dying beam revealed only a deserted corridor, lined with open doors. â€Å"Hello?† Anderson said. â€Å"Is somebody there?† Silence. Sato gave him an odd look, apparently having heard nothing. Anderson listened a moment longer and then shook it off. I've got to get out of here. Alone in the candlelit chamber, Langdon ran his fingers over the sharply carved edges of the pyramid's engraving. He was curious to know what the message said, and yet he was not about to intrude on Peter Solomon's privacy any more than they already had. And why would this lunatic care about this small pyramid anyway? â€Å"We have a problem, Professor,† Sato's voice declared loudly behind him. â€Å"I've just received a new piece of information, and I've had enough of your lies.† Langdon turned to see the OS director marching in, BlackBerry in hand and fire in her eyes. Taken aback, Langdon looked to Anderson for help, but the chief was now standing guard at the door, his expression unsympathetic. Sato arrived in front of Langdon and thrust her BlackBerry in his face. Bewildered, Langdon looked at the screen, which displayed an inverted black-and-white photograph, like a ghostly film negative. The photo looked like a jumble of objects, and one of them shone very brightly. Though askew and off center, the brightest object was clearly a little, pointed pyramid. A tiny pyramid? Langdon looked at Sato. â€Å"What is this?† The question seemed only to incense Sato further. â€Å"You're pretending you don't know?† Langdon's temper flared. â€Å"I'm not pretending anything! I've never seen this before in my life!† â€Å"Bullshit!† Sato snapped, her voice cutting through the musty air. â€Å"You've been carrying it in your bag all night!† â€Å"I–† Langdon stalled midsentence. His eyes moved slowly down to the daybag on his shoulder. Then he raised them again to the BlackBerry. My God . . . the package. He looked more closely at the image. Now he saw it. A ghostly cube, enclosing the pyramid. Stunned, Langdon realized he was looking at an X-ray of his bag . . . and also of Peter's mysterious cube-shaped package. The cube was, in fact, a hollow box . . . a small pyramid. Langdon opened his mouth to speak, but his words failed him. He felt the breath go out of his lungs as a new revelation struck him. Simple. Pure. Devastating. My God. He looked back at the truncated stone pyramid on the desk. Its apex was flat–a small square area–a blank space symbolically awaiting its final piece . . . that piece which would transform it from an Unfinished Pyramid into a True Pyramid. Langdon now realized the tiny pyramid he was carrying was not a pyramid at all. It's a capstone. At that instant, he knew why he alone could unlock the mysteries of this pyramid. I hold the final piece. And it is indeed . . . a talisman. When Peter had told Langdon the package contained a talisman, Langdon had laughed. Now he realized his friend was right. This tiny capstone was a talisman, but not the magic kind . . . the far older kind. Long before talisman had magical connotations, it had another meaning– â€Å"completion.† From the Greek telesma, meaning â€Å"complete,† a talisman was any object or idea that completed another and made it whole. The finishing element. A capstone, symbolically speaking, was the ultimate talisman, transforming the Unfinished Pyramid into a symbol of completed perfection. Langdon now felt an eerie convergence that forced him to accept one very strange truth: with the exception of its size, the stone pyramid in Peter's Chamber of Reflection seemed to be transforming itself, bit by bit, into something vaguely resembling the Masonic Pyramid of legend. From the brightness with which the capstone shone on the X-ray, Langdon suspected it was made of metal . . . a very dense metal. Whether or not it was solid gold, he had no way of knowing, and he was not about to let his mind start playing tricks on him. This pyramid is too small. The code's too easy to read. And . . . it's a myth, for heaven's sake! Sato was watching him. â€Å"For a bright man, Professor, you've made some dumb choices tonight. Lying to an intelligence director? Intentionally obstructing a CIA investigation?† â€Å"I can explain, if you'll let me.† â€Å"You will be explaining at CIA headquarters. As of this moment, I am detaining you.† Langdon's body went rigid. â€Å"You can't possibly be serious.† â€Å"Deadly serious. I made it very clear to you that the stakes tonight were high, and you chose not to cooperate. I strongly suggest you start thinking about explaining the inscription on this pyramid, because when we arrive at the CIA . . .† She raised her BlackBerry and took a close-up snapshot of the engraving on the stone pyramid. â€Å"My analysts will have had a head start.† Langdon opened his mouth to protest, but Sato was already turning to Anderson at the door. â€Å"Chief,† she said, â€Å"put the stone pyramid in Langdon's bag and carry it. I'll handle taking Mr. Langdon into custody. Your weapon, if I may?† Anderson was stone-faced as he advanced into the chamber, unsnapping his shoulder holster as he came. He gave his gun to Sato, who immediately aimed it at Langdon. Langdon watched as if in a dream. This cannot be happening. Anderson now came to Langdon and removed the daybag from his shoulder, carrying it over to the desk and setting it on the chair. He unzipped the bag, propped it open, and then hoisted the heavy stone pyramid off the desk and into the bag, along with Langdon's notes and the tiny package. Suddenly there was a rustle of movement in the hallway. A dark outline of a man materialized in the doorway, rushing into the chamber and approaching fast behind Anderson. The chief never saw him coming. In an instant, the stranger had lowered his shoulder and crashed into Anderson's back. The chief launched forward, his head cracking into the edge of the stone niche. He fell hard, crumpling on the desk, sending bones and artifacts flying. The hourglass shattered on the floor. The candle toppled to the floor, still burning. Sato reeled amid the chaos, raising the gun, but the intruder grabbed a femur and lashed out with it, striking her shoulder with the leg bone. Sato let out a cry of pain and fell back, dropping the weapon. The newcomer kicked the gun away and then wheeled toward Langdon. The man was tall and slender, an elegant African American whom Langdon had never seen before in his life. â€Å"Grab the pyramid!† the man commanded. â€Å"Follow me!† CHAPTER 42 The African American man leading Langdon through the Capitol's subterranean maze was clearly someone of power. Beyond knowing his way through all the side corridors and back rooms, the elegant stranger carried a key ring that seemed to unlock every door that blocked their way. Langdon followed, quickly running up an unfamiliar staircase. As they climbed, he felt the leather strap of his daybag cutting hard into his shoulder. The stone pyramid was so heavy that Langdon feared the bag's strap might break. The past few minutes defied all logic, and now Langdon found himself moving on instinct alone. His gut told him to trust this stranger. Beyond saving Langdon from Sato's arrest, the man had taken dangerous action to protect Peter Solomon's mysterious pyramid. Whatever the pyramid may be. While his motivation remained a mystery, Langdon had glimpsed a telltale shimmer of gold on the man's hand–a Masonic ring–the double-headed phoenix and the number 33. This man and Peter Solomon were more than trusted friends. They were Masonic brothers of the highest degree. Langdon followed him to the top of the stairs, into another corridor, and then through an unmarked door into a utilitarian hallway. They ran past supply boxes and bags of garbage, veering off suddenly through a service door that deposited them in an utterly unexpected world–a plush movie theater of some sort. The older man led the way up the side aisle and out the main doors into the light of a large atrium. Langdon now realized they were in the visitor center through which he had entered earlier tonight. Unfortunately, so was a Capitol police officer. As they came face-to-face with the officer, all three men stopped, staring at one another. Langdon recognized the young Hispanic officer from the X-ray machine earlier tonight. â€Å"Officer Nunez,† the African American man said. â€Å"Not a word. Follow me.† The guard looked uneasy but obeyed without question. Who is this guy? The three of them hurried toward the southeast corner of the visitor center, where they arrived at a small foyer and a set of heavy doors blocked with orange pylons. The doors were sealed with masking tape, apparently to keep the dust of whatever was happening beyond out of the visitor center. The man reached up and peeled off the tape on the door. Then he flipped through his key ring as he spoke to the guard. â€Å"Our friend Chief Anderson is in the subbasement. He may be injured. You'll want to check on him.† â€Å"Yes, sir.† Nunez looked as baffled as he did alarmed. â€Å"Most important, you did not see us.† The man found a key, took it off the key ring, and used it to turn the heavy dead bolt. He pulled open the steel door and tossed the key to the guard. â€Å"Lock this door behind us. Put the tape back on as best as you can. Pocket the key and say nothing. To anyone. Including the chief. Is that clear, Officer Nunez?† The guard eyed the key as if he'd just been entrusted with a precious gem. â€Å"It is, sir.† The man hurried through the door, and Langdon followed. The guard locked the heavy bolt behind them, and Langdon could hear him re-applying the masking tape. â€Å"Professor Langdon,† the man said as they strode briskly down a modern-looking corridor that was obviously under construction. â€Å"My name is Warren Bellamy. Peter Solomon is a dear friend of mine.† Langdon shot a startled glance at the stately man. You're Warren Bellamy? Langdon had never met the Architect of the Capitol, but he certainly knew the man's name. â€Å"Peter speaks very highly of you,† Bellamy said, â€Å"and I'm sorry we are meeting under these dreadful circumstances.† â€Å"Peter is in terrible trouble. His hand . . .† â€Å"I know.† Bellamy sounded grim. â€Å"That's not the half of it, I'm afraid.† They reached the end of the lit section of corridor, and the passageway took an abrupt left. The remaining length of corridor, wherever it went, was pitch-black. â€Å"Hold on,† Bellamy said, disappearing into a nearby electrical room from which a tangle of heavy-duty orange extension cords snaked out, running away from them into the darkness of the corridor. Langdon waited while Bellamy rooted around inside. The Architect must have located the switch that sent power to the extension cords, because suddenly the route before them became illuminated. Langdon could only stare. Washington, D.C.–like Rome–was a city laced with secret passageways and underground tunnels. The passage before them now reminded Langdon of the passetto tunnel connecting the Vatican to Castel Sant'Angelo. Long. Dark. Narrow. Unlike the ancient passetto, however, this passage was modern and not yet complete. It was a slender construction zone that was so long it seemed to narrow to nothing at its distant end. The only lighting was a string of intermittent construction bulbs that did little more than accentuate the tunnel's impossible length. Bellamy was already heading down the passage. â€Å"Follow me. Watch your step.† Langdon felt himself fall into step behind Bellamy, wondering where on earth this tunnel led. At that moment, Mal'akh stepped out of Pod 3 and strode briskly down the deserted main corridor of the SMSC toward Pod 5. He clutched Trish's key card in his hand and quietly whispered, â€Å"Zero-eight-zero-four.† Something else was cycling through his mind as well. Mal'akh had just received an urgent message from the Capitol Building. My contact has run into unforeseen difficulties. Even so, the news remained encouraging: Robert Langdon now possessed both the pyramid and the capstone. Despite the unexpected way in which it had happened, the crucial pieces were falling into place. It was almost as if destiny itself were guiding tonight's events, ensuring Mal'akh's victory. CHAPTER 43 Langdon hurried to keep pace with Warren Bellamy's brisk footsteps as they moved without a word down the long tunnel. So far, the Architect of the Capitol appeared far more intent on putting distance between Sato and this stone pyramid than he did on explaining to Langdon what was going on. Langdon had a growing apprehension that there was far more going on than he could imagine. The CIA? The Architect of the Capitol? Two Thirty-third-degree Masons? The shrill sound of Langdon's cell phone cut the air. He pulled his phone from his jacket. Uncertain, he answered. â€Å"Hello?† The voice that spoke was an eerie, familiar whisper. â€Å"Professor, I hear you had unexpected company.† Langdon felt an icy chill. â€Å"Where the hell is Peter?!† he demanded, his words reverberating in the enclosed tunnel. Beside him, Warren Bellamy glanced over, looking concerned and motioning for Langdon to keep walking. â€Å"Don't worry,† the voice said. â€Å"As I told you, Peter is somewhere safe.† â€Å"You cut off his hand, for God's sake! He needs a doctor!† â€Å"He needs a priest,† the man replied. â€Å"But you can save him. If you do as I command, Peter will live. I give you my word.† â€Å"The word of a madman means nothing to me.† â€Å"Madman? Professor, surely you appreciate the reverence with which I have adhered to the ancient protocols tonight. The Hand of the Mysteries guided you to a portal–the pyramid that promises to unveil ancient wisdom. I know you now possess it.† â€Å"You think this is the Masonic Pyramid?† Langdon demanded. â€Å"It's a chunk of rock.† There was silence on the other end of the line. â€Å"Mr. Langdon, you're too smart to play dumb. You know very well what you've uncovered tonight. A stone pyramid . . . hidden at the core of Washington, D.C. . . . by a powerful Mason?† â€Å"You're chasing a myth! Whatever Peter told you, he told you in fear. The Legend of the Masonic Pyramid is fiction. The Masons never built any pyramid to protect secret wisdom. And even if they did, this pyramid is far too small to be what you think it is.† The man chuckled. â€Å"I see Peter has told you very little. Nonetheless, Mr. Langdon, whether or not you choose to accept what it is you now possess, you will do as I say. I am well aware that the pyramid you are carrying has an encrypted engraving. You will decipher that engraving for me. Then, and only then, will I return Peter Solomon to you.† â€Å"Whatever you believe this engraving reveals,† Langdon said, â€Å"it won't be the Ancient Mysteries.† â€Å"Of course not,† he replied. â€Å"The mysteries are far too vast to be written on the side of a little stone pyramid.† The response caught Langdon off guard. â€Å"But if this engraving is not the Ancient Mysteries, then this pyramid is not the Masonic Pyramid. Legend clearly states the Masonic Pyramid was constructed to protect the Ancient Mysteries.† The man's tone was condescending now. â€Å"Mr. Langdon, the Masonic Pyramid was constructed to preserve the Ancient Mysteries, but with a twist you've apparently not yet grasped. Did Peter never tell you? The power of the Masonic Pyramid is not that it reveals the mysteries themselves . . . but rather that it reveals the secret location where the mysteries are buried.† Langdon did a double take. â€Å"Decipher the engraving,† the voice continued, â€Å"and it will tell you the hiding place of mankind's greatest treasure.† He laughed. â€Å"Peter did not entrust you with the treasure itself, Professor.† Langdon came to an abrupt halt in the tunnel. â€Å"Hold on. You're saying this pyramid is . . . a map? † Bellamy jolted to a stop now, too, his expression one of shock and alarm. Clearly, the caller had just hit a raw nerve. The pyramid is a map. â€Å"This map,† the voice whispered, â€Å"or pyramid, or portal, or whatever you choose to call it . . . was created long ago to ensure the hiding place of the Ancient Mysteries would never be forgotten . . . that it would never be lost to history.† â€Å"A grid of sixteen symbols doesn't look much like a map.† â€Å"Appearances can be deceiving, Professor. But regardless, you alone have the power to read that inscription.† â€Å"You're wrong,† Langdon fired back, picturing the simplistic cipher. â€Å"Anyone could decipher this engraving. It's not very sophisticated.† â€Å"I suspect there is more to the pyramid than meets the eye. Regardless, you alone possess the capstone.† Langdon pictured the little capstone in his bag. Order from chaos? He didn't know what to believe anymore, but the stone pyramid in his bag seemed to be getting heavier with every passing moment. Mal'akh pressed the cell phone to his ear, enjoying the sound of Langdon's anxious breathing on the other end. â€Å"Right now, I have business to attend to, Professor, and so do you. Call me as soon as you have deciphered the map. We will go together to the hiding place and make our trade. Peter's life . . . for all the wisdom of the ages.† â€Å"I will do nothing,† Langdon declared. â€Å"Especially not without proof Peter is alive.† â€Å"I suggest you not test me. You are a very small cog in a vast machine. If you disobey me, or attempt to find me, Peter will die. This I swear.† â€Å"For all I know, Peter is already dead.† â€Å"He is very much alive, Professor, but he desperately needs your help.† â€Å"What are you really looking for?† Langdon shouted into the phone. Mal'akh paused before answering. â€Å"Many people have pursued the Ancient Mysteries and debated their power. Tonight, I will prove the mysteries are real.† Langdon was silent. â€Å"I suggest you get to work on the map immediately,† Mal'akh said. â€Å"I need this information today.† â€Å"Today?! It's already after nine o'clock!† â€Å"Exactly. Tempus fugit.†

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Air Asia Essay

1.Threat of new Entrants The extent of barriers to entry depends on the strength of- i)Customer has little brand loyalty. If consumers of Airasia do not have brand loyalty, then the strength of the threat of new entrants is very high. The high numbers of competitors in the industry also decrease Airasia’s customer loyalty. Most of the travelers prefer low cost. New competitors which want to come in the industry have to spend little to compete with Airasia. ii)High capital requirement. The industry of airline needs large volume of start-up capital. The cost of setting up of offices, buying or leasing aircraft, hiring pilots and other staffs like air stewardess and etc incur a high start-up cost. Thus, the threat is low for Airasia. iii)Different product offered. Airasia offers different product compared to other competitors in Asia like Bangkok Airways, Tiger Airways, and Air Philippines. Other than the passenger sales ticket, Airasia also include holiday packages which is affordable around Asia. Airasia has good connection with hotels and tourism companies around Asia, which it is hard for new competitors to compete. iv)Low switching costs. Customers do not need to spend more on switching to another airline. The price would not be very significant in differences, which it depends on the availability of competitor’s services and suitability of the flight time that prompts them to switch. v)Moderate access to distribution channel. Airasia is the first airline company to enable customer book and purchase air tickets online in Malaysia. This makes its website very famous among frequent travelers. Although new competitors can create a website for their company, it is quite difficult to compete with Airasia’s website. The website is known of its simplicity and user friendly. Thus, new competitors are difficult to make known their websites to travelers. vi)Strict government regulations. In obtaining license and permit to operate  an airline company is quite restricted. This is because in Malaysia, the airline industry is very competitive already and that the government also wants to protect the interest of its national airline, MAS which is operating on loses a few years back. 2.Rivalry among existing firms The strength of this factor depends on: i)High numbers of rivals. There are approximately 59 low fares and no frills airlines compete with Airasia. Among of them are Tiger Airways, JAL Express, JetStar Airways, Air Arabia and etc. Some of the airline does not compete directly with Airasia, but it competes indirectly in routes that Airasia does not fly. Thus, the higher the number of competitors, the more fierce the competition. ii)High fixed cost. The airline industry incur high fixed cost which consists of finance cost, hire purchase, and staff costs. The airline companies have to gain more market share to cover the fixed costs. In doing that, constant price reduction is done by them to compete with others. Thus, the rivalry is strong. iii)Customers easily switch. The nature of airline industry is that customer’s priority is to look at price and flight schedule that suits them the best when buying air tickets. The main purpose of using the airline services is to get to the destination intended. Customers can switch to other airline easily which makes the industry so competitive. iv)High exit cost. It is hard for an airline company to exit the industry. It is because the cost is high in paying the loans, staff retrenchment and flight cancellation refunds. Even making losses, the companies have to get running to cope with fixed costs. This makes the industry very competitive. v)Products are similar. As mentioned earlier, the main purpose of using airline services is to reach the destination. Every airline provides similar  services to customers. Though Airasia provides other added services like hotel booking, and tour packages, it is subject to the customer’s choice. An industry with similar products offered is highly competitive. 3.Threat of Substitute product i)Easy to switch. There are about 59 low cost airlines competing in the industry. The airlines serve over one hundred cities and islands across the sub-continental regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia. Although some of the budget carriers only fly domestic routes within the country of origin, while only a few operates international routes connecting nearby countries, customers will always look for alternatives. ii)Performance of substitutes. Performance of other airlines are quite similar with Airasia’s given there is no obvious product differentiation. Performance of airlines normally consists of the accuracy of take off time, aircraft performance and staff services. So far, Airasia had constantly reviewed its performance and improve its services. iii)Relative price. The price of substitutes are about the same with Airasia’s. Some of the airlines offers cheaper price to achieve profitable passenger loads. The price offered depends on the time gap between the booking date and flight date. The longer the date, the cheaper will be the price. If the tickets are purchased last minutes, the price will be about the same with premium airlines like MAS and Singapore Airlines. Thus, in this situation customers would switch to the premium airlines. 4.Bargaining power of buyers i)No significant product differentiation. The only difference Airasia’s product with others airlines is the holiday packages offered. Most of the low cost airlines concentrate on providing flight services only to customers. There is some offers hotel booking at the city that the airline flies to. However, Airasia makes the difference by providing holiday packages like example 3 days and 2 nights to Bali at RM800 per pax includes  flight ticket, accommodation and travel guides. For customers who do not want to follow the travel agencies and enjoys freedom, they will look for Airasia’s packages, but the customer’s portion of this type is small. Thus the bargaining power of buyers is strong as the main thing they look for is to fly to destinations. ii)Low switching costs. Cost of switching to other airlines is low, so bargaining power of buyers is strong. Airasia is not the only airlines operates in Asia. Other than that the price offered by other competitors are not much different. The customer choice is subject to their convenience and flight schedule that fit them best. iii)Portion of buyers expenditure on airline is moderate. This factor depends on portions of income an individual earns. The higher the portion, the more the customer look for cheaper price and thus, the stronger the bargaining power of buyers. Eg when a student without earning any income, will look for the cheapest price available as the portion of his expenditure will be very substantial. iv)Customers have access to market information. The IT world had emerged since 20th century. Many big and success companies in the world uses IT and e-commerce to operate. Without IT, the business had boundaries and international business will be prohibited. With worldwide web, information can be gathered on one click. Customer’s access to the current airline market information is easy and available all the time. The airline companies have less room for negotiation. Thus, customers had strong bargaining power. v)Buyer’s power concentration in many hands. Most of the airline company customers are individual travelers, only some travel in groups. So the air tickets are purchased individually. The airline companies are not relying on a few groups of customers only. Thus, the bargaining power of buyer is strong. 5. Bargaining Power of Suppliers i) Supplier concentration in a few hands. The supplier of airline companies is the fuel supplier, foods supplier, merchandise supplier and aircraft supplier. There are few suppliers in the market, eg the aircraft supplier, the companies are either Airbus or Boeing. In this case the power of supplier is strong. Other supplier like foods supplier and fuel supplier, the term of the supply must be based on the market condition. The supplier cannot increase too much of its price or risk losing long term business with the aircraft companies. ii)High switching costs. Most of Airasia’s aircraft are Airbus models. Previously the company used Boeing models, which they lease it and the company had since phased out most of the models and replace with Airbus. If Airasia is to switch to Boeing again, then the cost will be high, because training cost for employees to suit the aircraft features must be provided. Other than that, the technology used by Airbus is the most advanced, thus Airasia must rely to the Airbus engineers to do maintenance of the aircrafts and seek advices. Thus, bargaining power of suppliers is strong. iii)Relative lack of importance of buyers to supplier. Airbus is a UK based aviation company. Its customers come from around the world. So far 9,113 aircraft had been ordered, out of which 5,408 aircraft had been delivered by the company. Airasia had ordered 200 aircraft from Airbus and so far only 54 aircraft had been delivered. The percentage of less than 1%, 0.99% proves that Airasia is not Airbus’s important buyer. Thus, Airbus had strong power over Airasia.